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 A Chronicle of Chiang Ch'ing's Activities in the Field of Literature and Art (May 1967)

A Chronicle of Chiang Ch'ing's Activities in the Field of Literature and Art

(May 1967)

A Great Standard-Bearer, a Dauntless Warrior: A Chronicle of Comrade Chiang Ch'ing's Activities in the Field of Literature and Art

[The original] Editor's Note: "The sinewy pines are seen in the dimness of twilight/Unperturbed by the fleecy clouds that hurry by/The cave of the Immortals is a work of nature/It commands much charm on these craggy peaks."   For several decades, our venerable and beloved Comrade Chiang Ch'ing has persistently waged arduous and excellent struggles against the Chinese Khrushchev and his agents in the circles of literature and art. Having always insisted and defended Chairman Mao's revolutionary line of proletarian literature and art, resisted adverse currents, braved ill winds, and fought against vicious tides, she has fully demonstrated a proletarian revolutionary's aspiration, aggressiveness and courage.  In the historically unprecedented Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, Comrade Chiang Ch'ing has once again become the first one to bear the frontal attack and thus achieved immortal historical accomplishments in destroying the Liu-Teng-T'ao black headquarters, the Yang Ch'en-wu, Yu Li-chin and Fu Ch'ung-pi counterrevolutionary, careerist, conspiratorial, and Rightist separatist anti-Party clique as well as in exposing other counterrevolutionary double dealers.
  Comrade Chiang Ch'ing is not only on the front of literature and art but also on the political stage, a well deserved radiant standard-bearer and dauntless warrior of the proletariat.
  We vow on our lives to defend Comrade Chiang Ch'ing, the gallant standard-bearer of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution!
  As early as in the 1930s, Comrade Chiang Ch'ing stood resolutely on the side of Chairman Mao's revolutionary line, on the side of the revolutionary camp of literature and art represented by Lu Hsun—the standard-bearer of cultural revolution; she conducted unbendingly and unflinchingly, struggles against the ghosts in literary circles, the elder and younger remnants of the preceding dynasty, the traitors to China and other pet dogs; against the capitulationist line represented by Wang Ming; and against the counterrevolutionary black line of literature of Chou Yang, Wang Shih-wei and their ilk.
        In the War of Resistance again Japanese Aggression, and at Yenan, Comrade Chiang Ch'ing conducted, on Chairman Mao's instruction, the first test of the revolution in Peking opera (called then "p'ing chu") and staged revolutionary modern Peking operas such as the Pinghsingkuan which used the Pinghsingkuan campaign personally directed by Comrade Lin Piao as its theme. The agents of the bourgeois class in the Party were resentful at this creative undertaking; and harbored discontent in their hearts. Even in 1956, the counterrevolutionary revisionist T'ien Han still cursed the undertaking as "an erroneous line that must be negated."

1949 The whole nation was liberated; and the People's Republic of China established.  Our country thus entered the stage of socialist revolution. The power holders taking the capitalist road represented by Liu Shao-ch'i strenuously trumpeted, from all avenues, "consolidation of the order of new democracy," attempting to push China toward capitalism.   Liu Shao-ch'i said in Tientsin: "Be not afraid of propagating feudalism," "Yang Yen-hui Visits His Mother may be performed on stage"; and trumpeted that the "censorship standards for books and newspapers, dramas and operas and motion pictures should be lowered."  Thus he opened the flood gates for the inundation of bourgeois literature and art in society. Comrade Chiang Ch'ing launched tit-for-tat struggles against Liu Shao-ch'i and his ilk.  She persevered and thus succeeded in banning such bad operas as The Emperor Flirts With the Waitress and Picking up the Jade Bracelet; and she opportunely inspired articles criticizing Mei Lan-fang's erroneous opposition to the revolution in Peking opera.

  March 1950 The reactionary film Inside Story of the Citing Court was shown in Peking, Shanghai, and elsewhere. It was greatly applauded in newspapers and other publications. Chairman Mao seriously pointed out: The "Inside Story of the Ching Court is a film of national betrayal; it should be criticized." But Liu Shao-ch'i said: "This film is a patriotic film." Comrade Chiang Ch'ing persisted in Chairman Mao's revolutionary fine and she proposed several times that the Inside Story of the Ching Court must be criticized. But Lu Ting-i, Hu Ch'iao-mu, and Chou Yang, etc., stubbornly rejected Chairman Mao's instruction, countering that "Shao-ch'i thinks this film is patriotic." Comrade Chiang Ch'ing persisted in the truth, energetically rejected the consensus, and refuted, with a sense of righteouness and stern reproach, such an absurd theme; she insisted that the Inside Story of the Ching Court must be criticized.
  July 11  The Cinema Directory Committee was established and Comrade Chiang Ch'ing became a member.   In the works conducted by tj1&j committee, comrade Chiang Ch'ing waged resolute struggles against I_ Ting-i, Hu Ch'iao-mu, and Chou Yang etc. and thus defended Chairman Mao's revolutionary line in literature and art.
  December The unfinished reactionary film The Life of Wu Hsun, left off by the old China Motion Picture Studio, was completed under the sponsorship of Hsia Yen and Yu Ling, etc., and authorized for showing by Chou Yang. Representatives of feudalism and capitalism jumped up to applaud the film. By April the next year, there emerged forty to fifty eulogistic articles in various newspapers and other publications in Peking, Tientsin, and Shanghai.
  During this period, production of the film To Whom the Glory Belongs was completed. This film trumpted the theme that glory belonged to the railway station master who literally adopted the shunting method of the Soviets; and it thus negated the great creative accomplishments of the Chinese people under the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party and Chairman Mao. Chairman Mao criticized the film. And Comrade Chiang Ch'ing said: "Should glory belong to this kind of a person?"
  February 1951 Chairman Mao aptly pointed out the reactionary nature of The Life of Wu Hsiln. Comrade Chiang told Chou Yang: "The Life of Wu Hsun is a reactionary film propagating reformism of the bourgeois class; it must be criticized." And Chou Yang vehemently demanded: "What's the fuss about having a little bit of reformism!"
  May 20 1951 Chairman Mao personally wrote for the People's Daily an editorial entitled "Give Serious Attention to the Discussion of the Film The Life of Wu Hsun," which was published subsequently. Chairman Mao solemnly pointed out the reactionary nature of The Life of Wu Hsun, and he sternly condemned the counterrevolutionary bosses in literary and art circles who feverishly praised The Life of Wu Hsun. He pointed out that the film demonstrated "the degree of ideological confusion reached in our country's cultural circles!" But Hu Ch'iao-mu and his ilk still resisted with all they could.
  July 23 to 28 The People's Daily published in installments a report entitled "Note of Investigation in the History of Wu Hsun." This report was written by an ad hoc investigation group personally organized by Comrade Chiang Ch'ing in accordance with Chairman Mao's instruction; the group was sent to Tangyi and adjacent areas in Shantung Province to conduct a large-scale, extensive and detailed investigation [of the history of Wu Hsun], in which resolute struggles were waged against Chung fien-fei and others who were sent there by Chou Yang. This "Note of Investigation," which was personally reviewed and corrected by Chairman Mao, unmasked, with ironclad evidence, the ugly face of Wu Hsun the big landlord, big money-lender and big gangster; and it thus finalized the conclusion of this debate [on Wu Hsun's history and character].
  July 28  Comrade Chiang Ch'ing, adhering to Chairman Mao's line in literature and art, proposed, in the Cinema Directory Committee, that cinema workers must penetrate deeply, and for protracted periods, into the worker-peasant-soldier masses.  She said: "The playwrights' present method of penetrating into society is questionable.  They only go into the society to observe a little bit of the way of living and immediately write out whatever they grasp.  This will not enable them to write things with flesh and blood."  Comrade Chiang Ch'ing also criticized unhealthy tendencies in the film-making of that time.  She pointed out: To whom the Glory Belongs was done pervertedly; and the People's Warriors must be revised because it expressed a sense of pessimism and disillusionment.  She said: "We shouldn't only make big ones, but both big and small ones." Comrade Chiang Ch'ing expressed important opinions on cinema criticism by pointing out: "Criticim must have in itself a clear discrimination of line, discriminating what is revolutionary and what is counterrevolutionary." Her preference was pictures with strong themes which would be full of momentum such as the Huai-Hai Campaign.
  September 1 Directed against the excessive secretion of poison by private cinema studios in Shanghai and the capitulationism of Chou Yang, Hsia Yen and their ilk, Comrade Chiang Ch'ing pointed out: "What these studios produced are not ordinary products; they are motion pictures which exert influence on the thinking of millions upon millions of people. For this reason, private studios must not be allowed to continue this way; film production must be placed under the Party's direct leadership for resolute implementation of Chairman Mao's literary and artistic orientation-serving the workers, peasants and soldiers."
  September At a conference of the Central's Propaganda Department, Comrade Chiang Ch'ing directed severe criticism against Chou Yang and his ilk for their stubborn adherence to the stand of the bourgeois class and for their resistence to the criticism of The Life of Wu Hsun. She also asserted that Chou Yang was of big landlord origin and his thought was Right-inclined. Chou Yang hated immensely Comrade Chiang Ch'ing's resolute adherence to Chairman Mao's revolutionary line. Thus he spread rumors and slandered her, saying that as long as Comrade Chiang Ch'ing remained, "works would be difficult to complete,"
  1952 The ad hoc investigation group for researching the history Wu Hsun returned to Peking; and Comrade Chiang Ch'ing instructed: tical use." (Transciber’s note: looks to miss words here in the original translation)
  September 1954 Chairman Mao personally initiated criticism of the idealism of the bourgeois class represented by Yu P'ing-po's "Studies of The Dream of the Red Chamber." In the middle of September, Comrade Chiang Ch'ing carried with her Chairman Mao's instruction and visited in person the editorial department of the People's Daily, explaining that Chairman Mao had attached great importance to the article "Concerning 'A Brief Comment on The Dream of the Red Chamber' and Others" and wanted the People's Daily to reprint it. Chou Yang and Teng T'o and their company dared openly to resist Chairman Mao's instruction in order to protect the reactionary "authority" of the bourgeois class.
  1962 Comrade Chiang Ch'ing, acting on Chairman Mao's instruction, went to theaters in person and carried out penetrating and detailed studies "The data obtained from the investigation may be used as basic material for adaptation of the Peking opera Sung Ching Shih." But this play was strangled at birth by Chou Yang and his cohorts.
  October With the concern and under the guidance of Comrade Chiang Ch'ing, the Shanghai Film Studio completed the excellent military story film From Victory to Victory (nan-cheng pei-chan) which demonstrated Chairman Mao's great strategic thinking.
  Comrade Chiang Ch'ing repeatedly proposed theatrical production of themes of great significance such as the "Liaosi-Shenyang Campaign" and the "Huai-Hai Campaign" etc., but these proposals were resisted by Chou Yang and Ch'en Huang-mei and smeared by them as "big but of no prac-and research; she reviewed, with Mao Tse-tung's thought in mind, more than 1,300 Peking operas. She seriously pointed out that, at that time, these were in disorder and full of poisonous weeds; she also proposed to ban ghost plays.
  July 6 Comrade Chiang Ch'ing attended the Peking opera Hai Jui Dismissed From Office and declared that this opera contained serious political errors.   She insisted on banning performance of this opera.
  September Chairman Mao issued in the Tenth Plenary Session of the Eighth Central Committee the great call "Never Forget Class Struggle." In the session, Comrade Chiang Ch'ing referred to Ch'i Yen-ming the question of putting demons and monsters and ghost on the stage, demanding that the Ministry of Culture should pay attention to it. Afterwards, she referred in a discussion with four chiefs and deputies of the CCPCC propaganda Department and the Ministry of Culture, to the inundation of emperors and kings, ministers and generals, scholars and beauties, demons and monsters on the stage and screen; but all of them paid no heed.
   March 17 1963 After repeated urgings by Comrade Chiang Ch'ing, the CCPCC Propaganda Department issued the "Notice Concerning the guSpension of Ghost Plays."
   May 6 The Wen Hui Daily in Shanghai published articles criticizing the big poisonous weeds of Li Hui Niang and "There is No Harm in Ghosts plays." The articles were written at the instigation of Comrade Chiang Ch'ing and K'o Ch'ing-shih.
   August The bourgeois class reactionary academic "authorities" Lo Erh-kang and Chien Po-tsan had for a long period canonized Li Hsiu-ch'cng, the traitor of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, as a hero. Comrade Chiang Ch'ing, consistently keeping herself on the side of Chairman Mao's revolutionary line and supporting the revolutionary faction, conducted serious criticism against this fallacy. Comrade Chiang Ch'ing also introduced related material to Chairman Mao; and Chairman Mao, after reading it, immediately marked his instructions on it, "On white paper and in black ink, the ironclad evidence stands like a mountain. [Li Hsiu-ch'eng's] integrity ends in later life, having no value as an exempler." This greatly heightened the morale of the revolutionary faction and thus opened up the joyously blossoming situation in the academic battlefront.
  Under Comrade Chiang Ch'ing's repeated urgings, the Whole country stopped showing Hong Kong films.
  Under Comrade Chiang Ch'ing's direct leadership, revolutionary comrades in literary and art circles at Shanghai opened up criticism of Debussy and ghost plays.
  Autumn Comrade Chiang Ch'ing deliberately selected and recommended the Shanghai opera Spark Amid the Reeds to Peking's First Peking Opera Troupe for adaptation and rehearsal; she also instructed the actors to study Chairman Mao's brilliant works such as "On Practice" and "On Contradiction" etc. For assisting the troupe to stage this play, Comrade Chiang Ch'ing also invited the Shanghai People's Opera Troupe to Peking to give a performance as a demonstration for the Peking Opera Troupe.
  November Comrade Chiang Ch'ing carefully studied twelve different scripts of the Red Lantern; she selected the best one and personally delivered it to the China Peking Opera Theater, letting them adapt it into Peking opera with the explicit requirement that Li YU-ho, an heroic figure of the worker class, must be prominent. She said, "Li Yii-ho i representative of the worker class, also a representative of the revolutj0n ary martyrs, as well as a member of the Communist Party. He is great man, a hero of the proletarian class. We should put key emphasjs on him and give prominence to his tall and great image." She encouraged everyone by saying, "Giving a performance is making a battle; and we must educate our younger generation to know that the proletarian state has not been won easily," and "we must boost the morale of the oppressed people in the world."
  December Comrade Chiang Ch'ing went deeply into the ballet troupe personally leading reformation of the ballet. Comrade Chiang Ch'ing said, "Foreign countries have being playing with ballet for several hundred years; but now Western ballet is decadent and in decline, and we must shoulder the red banner of revolution in ballet. Comrade Chiang Ch'ing encouraged comrades in the troupe to widen their vision to the whole world, "Don't serve only the minority but all the people of China and the revolutionary people of Asia, Latin America and Africa; we must have great fortitude and aspirations, with the conviction that we will certainly tread open a path of our own."
  Comrade Chiang Ch'ing recommended that both the Peking and the Shanghai ballet troupes prepare to stage the White-Haired Girl and the Red Detachment of Women.
  The Same Month Comrade Chiang Ch'ing went deeply into the Peking First Peking Opera Troupe for squatting on the point [meaning "staying there"] and she personally directed the reform of Peking opera; she recommended that the Shanghai opera Spark Amid the Reeds be adapted into Peking opera.
  Comrade Chiang Ch'ing requested that one of the Peking opera troupes become a test group. Backed up by the biggest highwayman who hindered the revolution in Peking opera, P'eng Chen repeatedly made things difficult, put many obstacles in the path, and refused to provide players and theaters; he also applied pressure on Comrade Chiang Ch'ing, even to the extent of making use of his authority forcibly to halt performance of Spark Amid the Reeds by calling it a thing "roughly manufactured" and an airy demonstration of his force to intimidate Comrade Chiang Ch'ing-At the same time, he amassed more than 180 operas, and by calling them "political missions" and "economic missions" [meaning that performance of these Peking operas would serve both political and economic purposes] he wanted the opera troupes to stage them! Comrade Chiang Ch'ing resolutely counterattacked "Don't do it for just a little bit of money!" she said, and encouraged the player comrades by saying, "Do things that haven't been done by others, and be a man who walks through the thorns afld chops down the brambles." She also presented autographed copies of Chairman Mao's works to these comrades and educated them by saying, ?You think I'm just here to cook up some operas, but I'm here to make war against feudalism, capitalism, and revisionism!"
  January 3 1964 Liu Shao-ch'i and Teng Hsiao-p'ing convened a forum on literature and art. In the forum, Liu, Teng, P'eng Chen, Chou Yang and their company flagrantly attacked modern plays as [resembling] "neither a mule nor a horse," and proposed that both the classical and the modern should be "walking on two legs." Their purpose was to spurn the modern plays; they also smeared us by saying that we treated old things "violently." K'ang Sheng and comrade Chiang Ch'ing waged, in the forum, tit-for-tat struggles against Liu Shao-ch'i and company. Comrade Chiang Ch'ing also said, "We just want to have something neither-a-mule-nor-horse"; "the new operas have not been one half of the whole, but there are some persons who are shouting 'walking on two legs,' " and "capitalism has treated our things more violently." She also said that "After fourteen years, some persons are still playing the sentiments of ancient times; this is a question of stand!"
  March Comrade Chiang Ch'ing personally directed the Shanghai Peking Opera Theater in rehearsals of the Taking Tiger Mountain by Strategy.
  The Same Month Comrade Chiang Ch'ing saw in Shanghai the Hui opera Morning on the Docks (renamed On the Docks) and thought that that opera manifested the spirit of internationalism of the dockers. After she went in person to the docks for an investigation and study, she proposed to the Shanghai Peking Opera Theater adaptation of the opera as a Peking opera. She said, "The high spirit of internationalism must be intensified and the heroic figure of the dockers must be erected." During the adaptation, Liu Shao-ch'i issued a black instruction, refuting heroic figures and emphasizing "intermediate characters"; and, using "cultivating successors" as an excuse, he demanded portrayal of figures who had served the restoration of capitalism. Comrade Chiang Ch'ing destroyed this intrigue. In the autumn of 1965, she said, "The plays which were revised in such a way as to portray the transformation of the intermediate characters must be rewritten once more." Comrade Chiang Ch'ing personally sponsored the task; she rearranged the staff, and strengthened the play-writing and music composing personnel; and she told the revolutionary 1 omrades of the theatrical group, "We'll support you whenever there are difficulties. I have just one demand: mould two heroes—Fang Hai-chen and Kao Ghih-yang."
  June 5 to July 31 Under the affectionate concern of Chairman Mao and the direction of Comrades Chou En-Iai, K'ang Sheng, and Chiang Ch'ing, a national festival of modern drama and operas for emulation and exchange of experience was conducted in Peking. This festival knocked down the most stubborn fortress—the Peking opera, and thus ushered in the new birth of the art of the Peking opera. Led by the revolution in Peking opera, revolutions on all battlefronts in literature and art were started one after another.
  Our great leader saw the excellent operas such as the Red Lantern (on June 11), the Taking Tiger Mountain by Strategy (on July 17), the Spark Amid the Reeds (July 23), and the Raid on the White Tiger Regiment (on August 10).
  July Comrade Chiang Ch'ing delivered the important report "On the Revolution in Peking Opera" to the performers in the theatrical festival. In this report, Comrade Chiang Ch'ing elucidated, with Mao Tse-tung's thought, the great significance of the revolution in Peking opera and expounded Chairman Mao's guidelines in the revolution in Peking opera. This speech is an important document for solving problems concerning the revolution in Peking opera by means of Marxism-Leninism-Mao Tse-tung thought.
  October 8 Chairman Mao, after seeing the revolutionary ballet The Red Detachment of Women, which was carefully fostered by Comrade Chiang Ch'ing, pointed out, "The orientation is correct; the revolution is successful; and artistically it is also good."
Middle of October  The China Peking Opera Theater's Red Lantern, after substantial revision, was publicly staged.
  December Comrade Chiang Ch'ing told Lu Ting-i, Chou Vang and company, "There are a great bunch of films such as the The Lin Family Shop, City Without Night, Thousand Miles of Adverse Wind, Red Sun, Revolutionary Family, Ball Fan, Two Families, The Seize, and Nieh Erh, which all have reactionary, counterrevolutionary, bourgeois and revisionist thoughts as well as low-class elements; they should all be criticized." But Lu Ting-i and Chou Yang etc., acting on Liu Shao-ch'i's will, only allowed criticism of The Lin Family Shop and the City Without Night.
  January 1965 Comrade Chiang Ch'ing went to the Central Orchestra and appealed to the revolutionary comrades there, "We must walk on our own road, we mustn't follow the foreigners to die!" She also recommended adaptation of the Peking opera Shachiapan as a symphony.
  Comrade Chiang Ch'ing wrote down her instruction in a report, asking guidance on the question of showing [or not showing] several films, submitted by the Shanghai Municipal Party Committee, saying "Don't cover up the ugliness of bad films, dont's doctor them before showing, for the purpose of avoiding criticism."
  January 22 Comrade Chiang Ch'ing recommended that the old Department of Culture convene a forum on film marking. She stated in the forum, "Serve the politics of the proletariat, serve the socialist revolution and socialist construction, and serve the workers, peasants and soldiers." She also recommended abolishing the director's exclusive monopoly, i.e., "director centralism."
  Comrade Chiang Ch'ing also criticized the old Department of Culture for promoting abstractionism. She said [to Chou Yang], "Chou Yang! You are in charge of culture; so you're also responsible [for this]."
  Middle of February After a struggle with the old Peking Municipal Party Committee, the Spark Amid the Reeds of the First Peking Opera Troupe's of Peking was greatly revised in comformity with Chairman Mao's instruction that "Armed struggle must be given prominence; and the play should be renamed Shaochiapan"; and it was then staged once more before the public.
  February 22 Comrade Chiang Ch'ing said in a letter containing important instructions on filmmaking, "In order to thoroughly resolve the question of bourgeois and revisionist management, I seriously recommend dissect a sparrow (a film studio), abolish director centralism, and practice the Party's democratic centralism. All persons participating in the creation will join discussions; then we'll assemble the good and correct ideas and hand them to the director for execution. Improper and incorrect ideas can be explained and criticized." This instruction was detained by the old Department of Culture; it was not handed over to the Film Bureau for "study" until July.
  April Comrade Chiang Ch'ing had, in Shanghai, led once more the refinement work of the revolutionary modern Peking opera Taking the Tiger Mountain by Strategy. She pointed out to the production and performance workers, "All arts are serving either the bourgeoisie or the proletariat. Peking Opera was, originally, for re-enacting the emperors and kings, generals and ministers, and thus serving the bourgeois class. It is impermissible to use the opera unchanged to serve the proletariat. If we want reform, we must have revolutionaries and those who can walk through the thorns and chop down the brambles."

  End of September The symphony Shaochiapan, which was personally supervised by Comrade Chiang Ch'ing, was publicly performed.
  November 10 The Wen Hui Daily published Comrade Yao Wen-yuan's "On the New Historical Drama Hai Jui Dismissed From Office and thus raised the curtain for the attack on the small handful of power holders in the Party who took the capitalist road. The writing of this article was completed with Chairman Mao's support, through Comrade Chiang Ch'ing's organization, including Comrades Chang Ch'un-ch'iao and Yao Wen-Yuan, after repeated revisions in a period of seven to eight months.
  February 2 to 20, 1966 Comrade Lin Piao entrusted Comrade Chiang Ch'ing to convene the Forum on the Work in Literature and Art in the Armed Forces. Chairman Mao revised the Summary of the Forum three times. The CCPCC Circular of April 10, 1966, said that this Forum "is a forum which held high the great red banner of Mao Tse-tung's thought." The "Forum Summary" "has made a correct analysis of and proposed correct guidelines for many basic problems in the contemporary class struggle on the front of literature and art; it is a very good and very important document."
  May 8 The Liberation Army Daily published Comrade Chiang Ch'ing's article (under the pseudonym of Kao Chu) "Open Fire at the Black Anti-Party and Anti-Socialist Line."
  May 16 Chairman Mao personally drew up the CCPCC's May 16 "Circulars" announcing the death sentence of the P'eng Chen counterrevolutionary and revisionist clique, sounding the bugle of forward march for the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, and directly attacking the small handful of the biggest power holders in the Party who took the capitalist road. The "Circular" announced the dismissal of the "Cultural Revolution Five-Man Group" which was under the control of Liu Shao-ch'i and P'eng Chen, and established the new "Cultural Revolution Group Under the Party's Central Committee" which was subordinate to the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau. This group had Comrade Ch'en Po-ta as its leader with Comrade K'ang Sheng as advisor, and Comrade Chiang Ch'ing as first deputy.

Source: Classified Chinese Comunist Documents: A Selection, pp. 710-720, 1978 by Institute of International Relations, Taipei, Taiwan. Transcribed by www.WENGEWANG.ORG

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