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 Excellent Situation in Primary And Middle Schools

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Excellent Situation in Primary And Middle Schools

Source: Peking Review, No. 6, February 8, 1974
Transcribed by www.wengewang.org

Guided by Chairman Mao's proletarian revolutionary line, an excellent situation prevails in the revolution in primary and middle school education. What has been achieved in this respect adds to the fruitful results gained in the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution.
Following Chairman Mao's teaching that "the correctness or incorrectness of the ideological and political line decides everything," primary and middle school teachers and students throughout the country have made earnest efforts to study works by Marx, Engels, Lenin and Stalin and Chairman Mao's writings and criticized Liu Shao-chi and Lin Piao's revisionist line. As a result, they have increased their understanding of the Party's basic line for the entire historical period of socialism and heightened their ability to distinguish between genuine and sham Marxism.
Under the Party's centralized leadership, the workers' propaganda teams have played a bigger role politically, while the poor and lower-middle peasants have stepped up their efforts to run schools in the rural areas. And greater progress has been made in building up the Party organizations in schools. Compared with 1965, the number of Party members among primary and middle school teachers and staff increased 2.6- and nearly 4-fold respectively in 1973. Communist Youth League members made up more than 26 per cent of the teachers and staff.
The ranks of the primary and middle school teachers and staff have also greatly expanded. With workers, poor and lower-middle peasants, demobilized armymen and educated youth who have settled in the countryside taking part in educational work, the teachers' class composition has undergone a noticeable change. The more than 420,000 part-lime worker-peasant-soldier teachers have played an important role in the revolution in education.
With middle school graduates settling in the countryside and taking part in industrial and agricultural productive labour and universities enrolling students from among workers, peasants and soldiers with practical experience, there has been a fundamental change in the old educational system which advocated "giving first place to intellectual development" and "he who excels in learning can be an official" and divorced students from proletarian politics, from workers and peasants and from productive labour. A new proletarian educational system is gradually being instituted. Schools generally have established contacts with factories or production brigades or they run their own small factories and farms when conditions exist. Giving first place to transforming the students' ideology, many schools have introduced "open classroom" teaching that links pedagogical activities with society and organized students to go in for production while studying. All this has produced better teaching quality and further developed primary and middle school education.
In the course of the revolution in education, students have tempered themselves and developed morally, intellectually and physically. Besides enhancing their consciousness in class struggle and the two-line struggle, there has been a marked increase in their knowledge and ability necessary for carrying out the three great revolutionary movements — class struggle, the struggle for production and scientific experiment. As a result of combining theory with practice, their knowledge is fairly well-rounded.
Enthusiasm among the masses for running schools is soaring. With the extensive setting up of commune-, brigade- or factory-run schools, conditions have been created for hundreds of millions of children of workers and peasants to go to school. The nation's total primary and middle school enrolment in 1973 was more than 30 per cent higher than in 1965. The enrolment rate of school-age children is as much as 90 per cent and junior middle school education has become universal in many big and medium-sized cities as well as in counties like Hsiyang in Shansi Province. Primary and middle schools have been established for the first time in minority peoples' areas where educational institution was nonexistent before liberation. Hence the end of the primitive state in which people kept records by cutting notches or by tying knots.

  
  
  

 
 
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