China's Road of Socialist Industrialization
China's Road of Socialist Industrialization
China's Road of Socialist Industrialization
China's Road of Socialist Industrialization
by the Writing Group of the Peking Municipal Revolutionary Committee
Source: Peking Review, No. 43, October 24, 1969
TWENTY years have passed since the birth of our great socialist motherland — the People's Republic of China.
These have been years in which, under the wise leadership of our great leader Chairman Mao, China's socialist revolution and socialist construction have won great victories.
A number of illustrious works written by Chairman Mao, including On the Correct Handling of Contradictions Among the People, scientifically and systematically summed up the historical experience of the dictatorship of the proletariat at home and abroad, put forward the great programme for China's socialist revolution and socialist construction, pointed out China's road of socialist industrialization and laid down the line, principles and policies for realizing socialist industrialization.
Guided by Chairman Mao's brilliant thinking, the Chinese working class and the broad masses of the labouring people, holding high the great red banner of the General Line of "Going all out, aiming high and achieving greater, faster,, better and more economical results in building socialism," have consistently adhered to the great principle of "maintaining independence and keeping the initiative in our own hands and relying on our own efforts*' and brought earth-shaking changes to our country. From a semi-feudal and semi-colonial agricultural country with an extremely backward economy, China has become a socialist country with neither internal nor external debts, which is daily becoming stronger. Starting from a very poor foundation in industry which had only a few branches, we have initially built an independent modern industrial system, developed modern science and technology at high speed, solved a series of difficult scientific problems and trained a contingent of revolutionized workers and scientific and technical personnel.
During the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution the counter-revolutionary revisionist line of the renegade, hidden traitor and scab Liu Shao-chi has been shattered. Mao Tsetung Thought has been widely disseminated and practised. The mental outlook of the people has undergone profound changes and their enthusiasm for revolution and production has risen unprecedentedly. All this has been a powerful spur to the swift development of socialist construction in China. The whole industrial front is coming atone vigorously. Good news keeps pouring in. The mass movement to grasp revolution 'and promote production has advanced wave upon wave. Technical innovations and great numbers of new products, new techniques and new materials have continuously appealed. The Yangtse River Bridge at Nanking and the 125.000-kilowaU steam turbo-generating set with inner water-cooled stator and rotor were entirely designed and made by China. China's petroleum industry reached the targets set by the Third Five-Year Plan ahead of schedule. The successful explosion of hydrogen bombs epitomizes the new leap in China's industrial production and science and technology.
The great victories in China's industry are eloquent proof of the infinite correctness of China's road of socialist industrialization which Chairman Mao charted Aimed with Mao Tsetung Thought, the great Chinese people have high aspirations, they have ability, dare to blaze new trails, conquer unclimbed peaks and they have created miracles.
Maintaining Independence and Keeping the Initiative In Our Own Hands and Relying on Our Own Efforts, Following Our Own Road in Developing Industry
"Maintaining independence and keeping the initiative in our own hands and relying on our own efforts" is a great principle consistently advocated by Chairman Mao. As early as in the period of the new-democratic revolution, Chairman Mao wisely pointed out: "On what basis should our policy rest? It should rest on our own strength, and that means regeneration through one's own efforts," We should act in this way in construction as well as in revolution. In the course of socialist construction, Chairman Mao again taught us many times to do away with all fetishes and superstitions, emancipate our minds and break down foreign conventions and follow our own road in developing industry.
Undertaking socialist industrialization in accordance with the principle of maintaining independence and keeping the initiative-in our own hands and relying on our own efforts means starting out from the concrete conditions in our country, relying on the diligent labour and wisdom of our people, making full use, in a planned way, of all resources in the country which can be used, giving free scope to all potentialities for socialist construction, bringing all positive factors into play and mobilizing all forces that can be utilized in order to build socialism with greater, faster, better and more economical results. Only in this way can we build an independent, powerful socialist economy on a reliable basis, consolidate the dictatorship of the proletariat and ensure that we defeat all enemies and remain invincible for ever no matter what the circumstances. And only in this way can we increase our strength to help the cause of the international proletarian revolution and do a bolter job in supporting the world revolution.
The capitalist countries were industrialized by relying on colonial plunder, indemnities from countries they defeated and getting loans from other countries. Their industrialization was built on the corpses of millions upon millions of working people. Social-imperialism openly begs international capitalism to make investments and, on the other hand, waves the banners of "economic integration" and "aid" and greedily plunders the wealth created by the working people of other countries. Our country is a socialist country with Marxism-Leninism-Mao Tsetung Thought as its guiding thought. It cannot and never will allow itself to develop its industry through plundering others or by selling out the interests of its people. Only by relying on its own strength and the creativeness of the masses can our country build itself up through diligence, frugality and hard work.
In carrying out socialist construction successfully, a country should and can only rely mainly on the efforts of its own people. Of course, economic mutual-aid and Co-operation between friendly countries, with each supplying what the other needs, is necessary on the basis of the principles of mutual respect for state sovereignty and independence, complete equality and mutual benefit. Bui such co-operation certainly must not replace the efforts of the people of the countries involved Chairman Mao teaches: "External causes are the condition of change and internal causes are the basis of change, and . . . external causes become operative through internal causes." Foreign aid "can become operative only through the efforts of the people of the country that receives the aid. If a country does not make efforts and maintain its independence and keep the initiative in its own hands in considering and solving its own construction problems and does not rely on the diligent labour and wisdom of its people but depends on foreign aid alone, it will be unable to do a good job in construction.
While we adhere to the principle of "maintaining independence and keeping the initiative in our own bands and relying on our own efforts," we do not. reject learning from other countries. We study the bad experience of other countries so as to guard against making the same mistakes ourselves. We should conscientiously learn all good experience from abroad, but must on no account copy and transplant everything. Chairman Mao teaches us: "Now, there are two different attitudes towards learning from others. One is the dogmatic attitude of transplanting everything, whether or not it is suited to our conditions. This is no good. The other attitude is to use our heads and learn those things which suit our conditions, that is, to absorb whatever experience is useful to us. That is the attitude we should adopt," If any state and nation is satisfied with imitating others, it will never be able to raise its head and allow its own radiance to shine forth. We study good foreign experience, not to imitate it, but to pioneer new things and to rely on our own efforts. Practice has fully proved that this principle is correct.
The renegade, hidden traitor and scab Liu Shao-chi wildly opposed Chairman Mao's great principle of "maintaining independence and keeping the initiative in our own hands and relying on our own efforts" and energetically pushed the doctrine of selling out the interests of the country, the slavish comprador philosophy and the doctrine of trailing behind at a snail's pace. When the great storm of the people's revolution smashed imperialist rule in China in 1949 and the wealth it plundered was returned to the hands of the Chinese people, Liu Shao-chi, to suit the needs of an imperialist come-back, baldly stated; "In future, imperialism may open mines and factories in China and share the profits with us equally. This is permissible provided it is mutually profitable." He tried in vain to sell out China's state sovereignty and lead the imperialists back so that they could continue to control China's economic life-lines and oppose socialist industrialization. His fallacy is the twin of the fraudulent comprador argument that "the best policy is to utilize foreign capital" advocated by the Chiang Kai-shek bandit gang, which shamelessly betrays China's interests. By 1963. when Chairman Mao's great thinking on "maintaining independence and keeping the initiative in our own hands and relying on our own efforts" had been widely grasped by the masses and splendid successes had been achieved in industrial construction, Liu Shao-chi continued to assert: "We must learn from capitalism's experience in running enterprises, especially the experience of monopoly enterprises," "we should buy anything we are unable to learn" and "we must first imitate." What he meant here by "learning" was that we should transplant everything from Western capitalism and cause our socialist industry to retrogress into a capitalist one; what he meant by "imitating" was not doing so in the ordinary sense, but that we should trail close behind foreign countries at a snail's pace and always let imperialism and modern revisionism lead us by the nose; what he meant by "buying" was to turn our country into a dependency of imperialism, a market for dumping its commodities. In the final analysis, such nonsense from Liu Shao-chi aimed at changing the dictatorship of the proletariat into the dictatorship of the bourgeoisie and pulling China back into the old, semi-feudal and semi-colonial rut. This once again exposed Liu Shao-chi as a faithful running dog of imperialism and modern revisionism.
We must continue to criticize Liu Shao-chi's slavish comprador philosophy and his doctrine of trailing behind at a snail's pace. We firmly believe in the masses' boundless creativeness. We should throw off all fetishes and superstitions, break down foreign conventions, analyse things of the past and from abroad with a scientific and critical attitude, constantly sum up our own experience, dare to explore new fields, weed out the old to let the new emerge, and. guided by Mao Tsetung Thought, follow our own road in developing industry.
Persistently Putting Proletarian Politics in Command
Chairman Mao teaches us: Politics is the commander, the soul in everything and "political work is the life-blood of all economic work." The fundamental guarantee for China's socialist industrialization is persistence in putting proletarian politics in command in industrial Construction.
A fierce struggle between the two classes, the two roads and the two lines exists throughout socialist society. China's socialist industrial construction has advanced precisely in the course of this struggle. If we do not put proletarian politics in command, bourgeois polities will inevitably take command. This is a question of primary importance concerning our country's destiny and whether the people will gain or lose everything. Only when we persist in putting proletarian politics in command and continuously carry on the socialist revolution, on the economic, political and ideological fronts can we guarantee that industrialization has a firm and correct political orientation, and guarantee that leadership over economic construction is firmly in the hands of the proletariat, so that the dictatorship of the proletariat is constantly consolidated and strengthened. If we forget class struggle, fail to make revolution and only unilaterally become engrossed in producing material, making machinery or going in for mechanization, socialist enterprises will degenerate into capitalist enterprises, political power will change colour and all the achievements in economic construction will fall Into the hands of the bourgeoisie and be used to oppress and exploit the working masses. Therefore, it is of primary importance to carry out revolutionization well and let revolutionization lead mechanization.
In the political report he delivered to the Ninth Party Congress, Vice-Chairman Lin pointed out: "Politics is the concentrated expression of economics. If we fail to make revolution in the superstructure, fail to arouse the broad masses of the workers and peasants, fail to criticize the revisionist line, fail to expose the handful of renegades, enemy agents, capitalist-roaders in power and counter-revolutionaries and fail to consolidate the leadership of the proletariat, how can we further consolidate the socialist economic base and further develop the socialist productive forces?'' Only when we persist in putting proletarian politics in command and implement Chairman Mao's great principle of "grasp revolution, promote production" at all times can we bring all positive factors into full play and bring the revolutionary wisdom and drive of the broad masses to the fore, promote the growth of the productive forces and build socialism with greater, faster, better and more economical results.
Every great achievement in our socialist industrial construction in the past 20 years has been made under the leadership of Chairman Mao by carrying on the socialist revolution and ceaselessly criticizing the counterrevolutionary revisionist line represented by Liu Shao-chi.
In the early period following the birth of New China, Chairman Mao sternly criticized Liu Shao-chi's dream of developing capitalism and led the people throughout the country in launching the san fan and wu fan * movements, thereby dealing hard blows to the bourgeois elements who undermined socialist construction. China swiftly rehabilitated and developed its national economy and then embarked on its First Five-Year Plan in big strides.
In the course of socialist transformation, Chairman Mao again made a timely criticism of the revisionist line of one-man leadership which Liu Shao-chi and his gang attempted to put into practice in the factories. Chairman Mao also promptly criticized Liu Shao-chi's criminal acts in opposing socialist revolution and slashing a large number of. agricultural producers' co-operatives. This speeded up the socialist transformation of agriculture, handicrafts and capitalist industry and commerce. Hard on the heels of this, Chairman Mao led the socialist revolution on the political and ideological fronts, which ushered in the magnificent great leap forward in China's national economy.
After this, Chairman Mao again criticized Liu Shao-chi and his gang, who, in co-ordination with the anti-China adverse trend brought on by imperialism, revisionism and all reaction, raised a hue and cry in opposing the General Line, the Great Leap Forward and the People's Communes. Chairman Mao led the struggles against the Right opportunist anti-Party clique and against the modern revisionist renegade clique. The difficulties brought about by the modern revisionists in perfidiously tearing up agreements and by three successive years of serious natural disasters were overcome. This spurred the continued development of industrial construction.
During the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, Chairman Mao led the people of the whole country in destroying the bourgeois headquarters headed by Liu Shao-chi, smashing his counter-revolutionary revisionist line and exercising all-round dictatorship of the proletariat in the superstructure, including all spheres of culture. Great Mao Tsetung Thought has been popularized on an unprecedented scale. The Chinese working class and the other working masses have raised their consciousness of class struggle and the struggle between the two lines to an unprecedented height, and their socialist initiative and creativeness have erupted to become a powerful stimulus to the development of Chinas socialist productive forces and will have an ever deeper influence on China's economic construction.
Every victory in socialist revolution has promoted the development of socialist construction. Revolution is the locomotive for the advance of history. This is the conclusion drawn by history!
We have won great victory in the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, but the defeated class will still struggle. The pernicious influence of Liu Shao-chi's counter-revolutionary revisionist line must be further eradicated. We must never forget class, struggle. We must unfold the mass movement for the living study and application of Mao Tsetung Thought still more deeply and on an even wider scale, and arm our minds with Chairman Mao's great theory of continuing the revolution under the dictatorship of the proletariat. We should firmly grasp revolutionary mass, criticism, using the invincible weapon of Mao Tsetung Thought to ceaselessly criticize such sinister revisionist fallacies spread by Liu Shao-chi as "'putting profits in command" and "material incentives" and criticize the bourgeoisie and the old ideas of all exploiting classes, so as to guarantee that our cause advances triumphantly and continuously in the direction pointed out by Chairman Mao.
Follow the Mass Line and Launch Mass Movements in a Big Way
In leading China's revolution and construction, our great leader Chairman Mao has always paid great attention Lo concentrating, studying, generalizing and summing up the wisdom and experience of the masses and their creations. In theory and practice, Chairman Mao has pointed out with genius the broadest road by which the people can play their role as masters of the country and bring their boundless initiative and creativeness into full play.
Chairman Mao has repeatedly taught us: The masses are the real heroes," "the masses have boundless creative power," and "direct reliance on the revolutionary masses is a basic principle of the Communist Party."
Trust the masses, rely on them, respect their initiative, and adhere to the mass line in all our work — this is the bountiful source of our strength for winning victory in our cause. In adhering to the mass line on the industrial front, we must whole-heartedly rely on the working class, rely on its thoroughgoing revolutionary spirit, its boundless wisdom and strength and its diligence and, at the same time, unite with all the forces that can be united for the construction of our great motherland.
The General Line of "going all out, aiming high and achieving greater, faster, better and more economical results in building socialism," as advanced by Chairman Mao, is a Marxist-Leninist line to arouse the masses' enthusiasm for socialism to the maximum. For the carrying out of the General Line, Chairman Mao laid down a whole series of principles of "walking on two legs," that is, develop industry and agriculture simultaneously and develop heavy industry and light industry simultaneously while giving priority to heavy industry; Simultaneously develop national industries and local industries, develop large enterprises and medium-sized and small enterprises, and use both modern and indigenous methods of production under centralized leadership and with overall planning and proper division of labour and co-ordination. This is how the mass line advocated by Chairman Mao is concretely applied to socialist construction. Through various ways and means, the General Line has opened up the broadest scope for the masses to fully display their talent in all fields and provided the solid, broadest mass foundation for the development of socialist industry.
Guided by the General Line for building socialism, a vigorous mass movement took place on China's industrial front in 1958.
The torrent of this movement swept away foreign dogmas, old conventions and orders unsuitable to the socialist economic base. Fearing that the mass movement would smash the trap he laid for a capitalist restoration, the scab Liu Shao-chi, who all along was hostile to the revolutionary masses, time and again threw cold water on the mass movement and framed up many charges against it. Liu Shao-chi and his gang erected countless taboos, attempting to use them as ropes to bind the worker masses hand and foot and thus strangle their revolutionary actions.
Chairman Mao sharply criticized those who opposed the mass movement in industry. He hit the nail on the head when he said: "They describe the mass movement on the industrial front as 'irregular’ and depreciate it as 'a rural style of work' and ‘a guerrilla way of doing things.' This is obviously wrong."
With regard to the revolutionary mass movement, we should guide it with Marxism-Leninism-Mao Tsetung Thought. Tailism, which means giving up the guidance of the movement, is wrong. While giving such guidance, we should follow Chairman Mao's teachings, respect the masses' initiative, be their pupils, and consistently follow the principle of from the masses and to the masses, and of concentrating ideas from the masses, persevering in them and carrying them through. We should thoroughly criticize Liu Shao-chi's bourgeois reactionary line of repressing the masses.
Tempered in the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, the Chinese working class is now unfolding a mass socialist revolutionary emulation drive on the industrial front. The situation in "grasping revolution, promoting production and other work and preparedness against war" is growing better daily. Cadres at all levels on the industrial front should follow Chairman Mao's teachings, go among the masses, take part in productive labour, maintain close tics with the masses, closely rely on the working class, change irrational rules and regulations and establish and uphold rational and socialist rules and regulations. When the broad masses are engaged in vigorous, revolutionary practice, the cadres should, by way of "dissecting" one or more "sparrows," use Mao Tsetung Thought to discover new ideas, new creations and new experience in good time, sum them up, push the mass movement for socialist revolutionary emulation that has already been launched still further and carry socialist industrial construction to new heights.
Correctly Handling the Relationship Between Industry And Agriculture, Between Heavy Industry And Light Industry
In his essay On the Correct Handling of Contradictions Among the People, Chairman Mao pointed out: "in discussing our path to industrialization, I am here concerned principally with the relationship between the growth of heavy industry, light industry and agriculture. It must be affirmed that heavy industry is the core of China's economic construction. At the same time, full attention must be paid to the development of agriculture and light industry." He later went further in summing this up in these words: "Take agriculture as the foundation and industry as the leading factor."
The path to industrialization indicated by Chairman Mao means in essence that, under the leadership of the working class, the enthusiasm of the broad masses of the Chinese peasants in building socialism should be brought into full play so as to vigorously support socialist industrialization.
To attain socialist industrialization, it is necessary to give priority to the development of heavy industry. Only when heavy industry is developed and priority given to increasing the means of production will it be possible to effect expanded social re-production, provide advanced technical equipment for the technical transformation of agriculture and for the development of light and heavy industries, and bring the leading role of Industry in the national economy into full play. There are two ways to develop heavy industry. One is by devoting less efforts to the development of light industry and agriculture, with the result that the people grow dissatisfied and heavy industry will not really be built satisfactorily but will be retarded on account of the slow development of light industry and agriculture. The other way is the one pointed out by Chairman Mao, in which more efforts are devoted to developing light industry and agriculture. When agriculture and light industry are developed, it will be possible to turn out large quantities of farm produce and rural sideline products and light industrial goods to satisfy the people's daily needs and to accumulate more funds for building a powerful heavy industry. With the development of agriculture, it will be possible to supply industry with plenty of raw materials and to find an extensive market for industrial goods, particularly heavy industrial products, so that heavy industry will be developed on a still more solid basis.
The principle "take agriculture as the foundation and industry as the leading factor" concerns the major issues, under the condition of the dictatorship of the proletariat, of correctly handling the relationship between the two labouring classes workers and peasants— and of consolidating the worker-peasant alliance. Chairman Mao has taught us: "We have a rural population of over five hundred million, so the situation of our peasants has a most important bearing on the development of our economy and the consolidation of our state power." Without the peasants as its ally or without a consolidated worker-peasant alliance, the working class will not be able to consolidate the dictatorship of the proletariat and build a powerful socialist country. Correctly handling the relationship between industry and agriculture and between heavy industry and light industry will enable heavy industry to develop still more rapidly, help strengthen the working class' leadership of the peasants, quicken the pace of the technical transformation of agriculture, and promote the consolidation and development of socialist ownership in agriculture. Only in this way will the support given by agriculture to industry be ensured and the worker-peasant alliance consolidated and strengthened continuously.
The road to industrialization indicated by Chairman Mao profoundly reflects the objective requirements of the development of the socialist economy and effectively sets in motion the enthusiasm of the broad masses for building socialism. By adhering to the principle "take agriculture as the foundation and industry as the leading factor," we have speeded up the socialist industrialization of our country and promoted an all-round growth in the whole national economy.
Be Prepared Against War, Be Prepared Against Natural Disasters, and Do Everything for the People
"Be prepared against war, be prepared against natural disasters, and do everything for the people” is Chairman Mao's great strategic thinking, and the fundamental aim of our industrial construction.
Lenin pointed out: Imperialism means war. Violently pounded by the torrent of the revolution of the people of the world, U.S. imperialism and social-imperialism, beset with difficulties at home and abroad, are now wildly carrying out arms expansion and war preparations. Collaborating and contending simultaneously, they point their spearhead at our great socialist motherland. We must not in the least relax our vigilance against the danger of U.S. imperialism and social-imperialism launching a large-scale war of aggression. While carrying out industrial construction, we must be on the alert for the enemy's movement and keep preparedness against war in mind. We must have an adequate arrangement and a strategic disposition, correctly handle the relationship between coastal and inland industries and between economic construction and national defence so as to bring about a gradual balance in the disposition and a rational geographical distribution of the nation's industry. We must constantly strengthen our national defence while speeding up our economic construction.
With a view to preparedness against war, every area, province and city should pay attention to rational geographical distribution and appropriate multi-purpose development of industries in line with Chairman Mao's instruction: "Various localities should endeavour to build up independent industrial systems. Where conditions permit, co-ordination zones, and then provinces, should establish relatively independent but varied industrial systems.” When circumstances permit, we must encourage co-operation between nearby units for industrial production and increase their capacity to turn out whole sets of industrial products. In addition, we must pay attention to producing industrial goods needed in both peace time and war lime and for civilian and military use. Should U.S. imperialism and social-imperialism impose a war on the Chinese people, we shall have many big and small reliable industrial bases which provide us with more room for manoeuvre, so that all parts of the country can fight the war on their own, become impregnable, wipe out the enemy and win victory.
The development of inland industries makes it possible to give fuller play to the enthusiasm of the people of all nationalities in the country for building socialism; change the industrially backward state of affairs in regions inhabited by national minorities, a phenomenon left over from the old society, and strengthen the grout unity of all nationalities.
It is essential to develop inland industries, but attention should also be paid to building coastal industries. Full use of the available equipment and technical forces in coastal industries will provide more advanced technical equipment for the development of inland industries, train more technical forces, accumulate more funds and promote the rapid development of inland industries.
Our great leader Chairman Mao leaches us: "She (China] will have become a powerful socialist industrial country. And that is as it should be. China is a land with an area of 9,600,000 square kilometres and a population of 600 million people, and she ought to have made a greater contribution to humanity."
U.S. imperialism, social-imperialism and all reaction today find the going tougher and tougher and are rotting with each passing day. Our great socialist motherland, like the rising sun, is thriving and growing ever more prosperous. Never has great Mao Tsetung Thought been so deeply rooted in the minds of the people and China's socialist construction so vigorous. Boundlessly loyal to our great leader Chairman Mao, the Chinese working class arid the masses of the people rally closely around the Party Central Committee with Chairman Mao as its leader and Vice-Chairman Lin as its deputy leader. With proletarian revolutionary heroism, they are marching in big strides along the road of socialist industrialization charted by Chairman Mao and are fighting courageously to build China into a powerful socialist industrial country and give greater support to the world revolution.
*San fan: the struggle against the "three evils" — corruption, waste and bureaucracy.
Wu fan: the struggle against the "five evils” — bribery, tax evasion, theft of stale property, cheating on government contracts and stealing the state's economic information.
Source: Peking Review, No. 43, October 24, 1969
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