Loyang Tractor Plant Advances Along The Road of Self-Reliance
Loyang Tractor Plant Advances Along The Road of Self-Reliance
Loyang Tractor Plant Advances Along The Road of Self-Reliance
—How its worker masses fight to defend Chairman Mao's proletarian revolutionary line
Source: Peking Review, No. 25， June 20, 1969
GUIDED by Chairman Mao's proletarian revolutionary line, the revolutionary workers of the Loyang Tractor Plant have in the past decade and more waged resolute struggles against the counter-revolutionary revisionist line of the renegade, hidden traitor and scab Liu Shao-chi, his slavish comprador philosophy and his doctrine of trailing behind at a snail's pace. Meanwhile they have upheld Chairman Mao's great policy of "maintaining independence and keeping the initiative in our own hands and relying on our own efforts." As a result, the plant's technical work has vigorously forged ahead along the course charted by Chairman Mao.
The Masses' Socialist Enthusiasm
Construction of the Loyang Tractor Plant started 16 years ago. At that time, Shanghai, northeast China and other industrial centres assigned their experienced veteran workers to help with this key project and the villages along the Yellow River sent their outstanding young people to work on the industrial front. The workers were determined to devote their wisdom and labour to building China's first tractor plant and manufacturing China's first tractor. Working hard day and night, they erected huge plant buildings and installed thousands of machines. By using indigenous methods, they also achieved outstanding successes in technical innovations and technical revolution.
Even though engaged in arduous work, the workers gradually sensed many things binding them hand and foot. More and more foreign conventions were being introduced and the administrative structure had become unwieldy with the adoption of increasingly complicated, unnecessary rules and regulations. In technical work, any innovation proposed by the workers had to pass through dozens of offices for examination and ratification, and it was pigeonholed for several months or even a year without any word of acceptance or rejection. With regard to designing, trial manufacture and experimentation of products, and innovation of equipment and technology, the workers had no say at all.
Power over technical matters was in the hands of a few bourgeois technical authorities who considered the foreign dogmas of capitalist and revisionist countries as treasure and copied from them root and branch. As a result, a dispirited atmosphere enveloped the plant's technical work. The hundreds of technical personnel, shut up in big office buildings, were divorced from proletarian politics, production and the masses. Though they were engaged in designing, they did not know clearly which kind of tractors the peasant masses urgently needed.
In substance, this situation involved the question of which line to pursue and which road to follow in the plant's technical work. Should the workers uphold Chairman Mao's proletarian revolutionary line, that of maintaining independence and keeping the initiative in their own hands and relying on their own efforts and of unfolding mass movements in a big way, or follow Liu Shao-chi's counter-revolutionary revisionist line of trailing behind at a snail's pace and relying on specialists to run the factories and his slavish comprador philosophy?
Developing Industry by Our Own Efforts
The years in which the workers gave play to their infinite creativeness began at last in 1958 when Chairman Mao laid down the general line of "going all out, aiming high and achieving greater, faster, better and more economical results in building socialism." Chairman Mao's instruction, "do away with all fetishes and superstitions and emancipate the mind," inspired the workers to tackle technical problems. Their enthusiasm which had been suppressed for many years burst forth and they dared to think, to act and to make revolution. TIIL- working class gave a great impetus to the advance of technical work in the tractor plant.
The workers feared neither foreign "experts" nor "authorities." Young worker Hu Hai-liang, a newcomer in the punching and stamping workshop, observed that the workers operating the big imported presses did the loading and unloading manually all year round and this process was both fatiguing and unsafe. He made up his mind to improve these foreign machines. He pondered over the problem day and night, drew sketches, searched for reference data and conducted experiments. With the help of several experienced workers, he finally created an automatic loading and unloading mechanism. This device greatly lessened the workers" labour intensity, ensured safety and raised labour efficiency.
This achievement blazed the trail for the plant's drive for technical innovations and technical revolution. The whole plant soon witnessed a mass leap forward in this direction.
Giving full play to the style of not fearing fatigue and fighting successive battles, workers of an electroplating group in the engine department succeeded in developing China's first automatic electroplating line for the tractor industry in 28 days, thereby casting aside the old foreign technology.
The tractor plant adopted more than 3,400 items of technical innovations and technical revolution in less than two years and 18 workers were promoted engineers. Not only were the worker masses capable of creating and inventing, but they were also capable of writing manuals summing up their experiences.
During the mass movement, large numbers of technicians also came out of the office buildings and joined in production. Fighting alongside the workers, they remoulded their own world outlook while fulfilling their responsibility as technicians.
Faced with such a situation, although certain foreign "specialists" became speechless and dejected, they could not but turn thumbs up in praise of the Chinese workers,
China's first large tractor plant was thus put into all-round operation in November 1959, nine months ahead of schedule, constituting a victory of Chairman Mao's proletarian revolutionary line of maintaining independence and keeping the initiative in our own hands and relying on our own efforts.
Advancing in the Course of Struggle
With inveterate hatred for the proletarian revolutionary line, the arch renegade Liu Shao-chi visited the Loyang Tractor Plant in April 1960. Being mortally afraid of the great achievements which the workers had made in the big leap forward by relying on their own efforts, he did all he could to promote the fallacies of trailing behind at a snail's pace and depending on specialists to run the factories, in a vain attempt to push the tractor plant off the socialist road and back on to the capitalist road. From that time on, the struggle between the two classes, the two roads and the two lines in the field of science and technology was waged even more fiercely in this plant.
Liu Shao-chi did not rely on the worker masses but on bourgeois technical authorities. He did not want the proletariat to be the master of its own affairs but the bourgeoisie to monopolize everything arbitrarily. The handful of capitalist roaders in the plant faithfully implemented Liu Shao-chi's counter-revolutionary revisionist line. They attacked the self-reliance based mass movement, babbling that the drive for technical innovations and technical revolution during the big leap forward was "blindness" and "fanaticism." They concocted regulations and rules amounting to half a million Chinese characters to throttle the workers' initiative and creativeness by imposing restrictions, suppression or punishment They also put into effect a "chief engineer system." As a result, a revisionist system of technical management under which specialists were relied on to run the plant was strictly enforced. Bourgeois technical authorities held control over the plant's technical work and they had the final say on all matters, major and minor.
Under the pernicious influence of this counterrevolutionary revisionist line, technical work throughout the plant became duller and duller. The workers were looked upon as slaves to the machines and the technicians were ordered back to the office buildings. The 18 worker-engineers who had been promoted during the big leap forward were all removed from their posts. Eighty per cent of the more than 3,000 items of technical innovations and technical revolution made during the great leap forward were discarded.
In spite of the fact that Liu Shao-chi and his agents worked overtime to peddle the doctrine of trailing behind at a snail's pace and the slavish comprador philosophy, the workers launched courageous counterattacks. When the capitalist roaders ordered the dismantling of the automatic electroplating line, the workers said: "We did this in accordance with Chairman Mao's teachings. No one is allowed to remove it!"
The revolutionary heroism of the working class which persists in maintaining independence and keeping the initiative in our own hands and relying on our own efforts deflated the arrogance of the handful of capitalist roaders and bourgeois technical authorities.
Undaunted by the capitalist roaders' suppression, the workers cast aside foreign dogmas and conventions and blazed new trails for China's own industrial development. They succeeded in producing many new products and introducing many new techniques. All this dealt a telling blow to Liu Shao-chi's counterrevolutionary revisionist line.
Working Class Wields Power
The tempest of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution swept the whole tractor plant. The broad masses of revolutionary workers courageously rebelled against the handful of capitalist roaders in the Party, seized back that portion of power that the latter had usurped and set up revolutionary committees at all levels. The working class is now the real master of the plant.
Under the direct leadership of the plant's revolutionary committee, the revolutionary workers of the engine department in March 1968 formed the plant's first three-in-one organization for scientific research with workers as the main body and with revolutionary technical personnel and revolutionary cadres taking part, and thereby replaced the former technical management which had long been controlled by the capitalist roaders and bourgeois technical authorities. Working at the frontline of production, they have done a solid job of designing, trial producing, experimenting and improving engines — the heart of tractors.
After the working class re-seized power over technical matters, the class enemies did not submit to defeat. One reactionary technical authority time and again called at the three-in-one organization, and flattered its staff members openly while undermining it covertly. The workers exposed this scoundrel's scheme and later after investigation discovered that he was a class enemy who had sneaked into the revolutionary ranks. They criticized him severely on the spot.
There was also a very sharp struggle between the two ideologies and the two world outlooks. Some people held that the workers without much schooling were unable to wield power over technical matters. The workers, however, replied in no uncertain terms: 'The working class is most loyal to Chairman Mao and Mao Tsetung Thought. By wielding power over technical matters, the working class aims at using Mao Tsetung Thought to command and transform technical work and to ensure that scientific and technical work in the plant advances in the orientation pointed out by Chairman Mao."
At the critical moment of the struggle, our great leader Chairman Mao issued his latest instructions, "take the road of the Shanghai Machine Tools Plant in training technicians from among the workers" and "the working class must exercise leadership in everything." Under the inspiration of Chairman Mao's directives, ail departments of the plant have set up three-in-one organizations for scientific research work and all workshops, shifts and groups have organized their own technical units with the workers as the core.
Since taking power over technical work into its own hands, the working class has performed many miracles which the bourgeois philistines and Right conservatives never conceived. The engine department successfully designed and trial produced in three months a single-cylinder engine which the bourgeois technical authorities had failed to make during their try of more than ten years. Trial operation has proved that the engine is stable, reliable and of high precision. While the Ninth National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party was in triumphant session, the standard parts department successfully trial manufactured China's first wire-drawing machine of a new type and filled a gap in China's science and technology.
"The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution is a powerful motive force for the development of the social productive forces in our country." Guided by Chairman Mao's revolutionary line, both technical work and production in the Loyang Tractor Plant have taken on a new look. During the period of the Party's Ninth National Congress, the plant increased its monthly output to an all-time high.
Posted: 2009-02-27 03:20 |
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