本页主题: Unfold a People's War to Overthrow Pro-U.S. Dictatorial Regime 打印 | 加为IE收藏 | 复制链接 | 收藏主题 | 上一主题 | 下一主题

weihong2
级别: 论坛版主


精华: 0
发帖: 1693
威望: 1694 点
红花: 16930 朵
贡献值: 0 点
在线时间:406(小时)
注册时间:2007-05-31
最后登录:2009-08-25

 Unfold a People's War to Overthrow Pro-U.S. Dictatorial Regime

图片:
Unfold a People's War to Overthrow Pro-U.S. Dictatorial Regime
—The Central Committee of the Communist Party of Brazil Publishes a Document Which Explains Road of Armed Struggle in Brazil

Source: Peking Review, No. 25, June 20, 1969
Transcribed by www.wengewang.org


THE Central Committee of the Communist Party of Brazil has recently published a document entitled "People's War — The Path of Armed Struggle in Brazil." The document explains in detail the Party's line for leading the Brazilian people in armed struggle to overthrow the diabolic dictatorial rule of U.S. imperialism and the reactionary Brazilian brasshats and to achieve national independence, progress and freedom.
     The document first bares the Brazilian pro-U.S. military dictatorial regime's unprecedentedly ruthless rule and criminal national betrayal. It denounces U.S. imperialism and its agents for their crime of controlling all Brazilian departments of production, seizing vast areas of Brazilian territory and directly manipulating Brazil's public administration.
     The Brazilian people, the document points out, will not tolerate this shameless pro-U.S. reactionary military regime. Their condemnation of U.S. imperialism and its lackeys has never been so vehement. More and more Brazilians are urgently demanding the overthrow of the dictatorial regime through armed struggle.
     It says that the great majority of the Brazilian people would rather take up arms against the reactionary militarymen and U.S. imperialism than live in submission under the domestic reactionaries and foreign plunderers. In the light of Marxism-Leninism and the contribution made with genius by Comrade Mao Tsetung to people's war, the Party should examine the prerequisites for launching and developing armed struggle and comprehensively set forth a practical course of struggle.
     The first part of the document analyses the decisive factors on the road of armed struggle. Explaining the conditions favourable to revolution, the document points out; Brazil is a dependent country where the land ownership is monopolized by a handful of persons, the great majority of the rural population are landless and wide-scale cattle breeding has taken up the major part of the utilized land. U.S. imperialism is daily strengthening its domination over Brazil, and the U.S. monopoly interests have taken the fundamental sectors of Brazil's economy into their hands and arc turning it into a U.S. colony. Although Brazil possesses immense natural wealth, it remains under-developed. Although it has a number of advanced industrial centres, the economy in many regions differs little from that of the colonial era. The great majority of the 90 million Brazilians suffer from all kinds of hardships while a small minority live in luxury and abundance.
     The document says: Over the past 50 years or so, the people have tried in every way to rid the country of its state of backwardness and foreign dependency. They have experienced many armed struggles and have lived through periods of upsurge of powerful mass struggle. Despite the low level of organization of the masses in the democratic anti-imperialist movement, their fighting power and revolutionary spirit have been growing and developing.
     It says: A Marxist-Leninist party, the Communist Party of Brazil, which has accumulated revolutionary experience and gone through the test of struggle against opportunism and revisionism, is in action in Brazil. It is guided by an advanced theory and is in a position to lead the liberation struggle of the Brazilian people successfully.
     The document emphatically points out: The armed struggle in Brazil will be arduous and protracted. As for the enemy, it is only temporarily strong and will be weakened day by day. In the course of protracted struggle, the democratic anti-imperialist movement will daily grow stronger as the influence of the working class party continuously expands, as more and more peasants turn to the revolution and a growing number of patriots join in the struggle. Through the struggle, the people will accumulate sufficient military experience to build up an army of their own.
     The second part of the document explains in detail the basic aspects pi the armed struggle.
     1. The Brazilian people's armed struggle will have a profound popular content and will be a people's war. The Brazilian revolution is national and democratic in character. The Brazilian ruling classes are unable to resolve the various social contradictions in the country. The discontent of the broad masses is increasing daily and their aspirations can be realized only through revolution. The leadership of the Communist Party of Brazil will draw the absolute majority of the people into the revolutionary struggle.
     2. The big cities, where the most powerful and the largest number of enemy troops are concentrated, cannot become the principal theatre of the liberation war of the Brazilian people. These troops can encircle and defeat the insurrecting masses who do not have sufficient weapons for resistance. But this does not moan that big cities are not important. Three million workers and a broad stratum of the petty bourgeoisie, who, together with the peasants and agricultural workers, constitute the motive force of the revolution, are in the cities. The mass political movement in the cities will help to prepare and unfold armed actions in the rural areas, while armed actions in the rural areas will in turn push forward the mass struggle in the big cities.
  The interior is the favourable battlefield for people's war. The peasant masses are a great force which should be mobilized. They represent an immense potential revolutionary force and are the principal masses providing fighters for people's war. The interior is the weakest link in the domination of the reactionary forces, who do not have enough troops to occupy the vast rural areas. The reactionary troops in these areas can only operate under unfavourable conditions. They will be compelled to disperse their forces and be vulnerable to blows from the revolutionaries. On the contrary, the people's armed forces will have at their disposal ample ground for manoeuvre, enabling them to avoid encirclement and attrition and build up strength. Hence, it will be fundamentally in the interior that people's war will be unfolded.
     3. The liberation war of the Brazilian people will be a protracted one and no rapid victory should be expected. To win the victory of the revolution in the whole country, it is necessary to destroy the armed forces of the reactionaries, and the U.S. troops who are bound to be sent to Brazil. With the development of the struggle, the revolutionary forces will be able to occupy extensive areas and establish the people's political power there; however, only through arduous and protracted struggle can they defeat the powerful enemies and win complete victory.
     4. The people will rely mainly on their own strength to carry on the war. No illusions about external logistics support should be encouraged. But the Brazilian people are not alone. They have the solidarity of the revolutionary peoples and the support of the Latin American people. This will help them greatly in the struggle to be carried out through their own strength.
     5. Guerrilla warfare will be the principal form of struggle in the initial stage of people's war. The guerrillas should avoid the enemy's strong points and attack his weak points; they should always ensure their own freedom of advance or retreat and be prepared to fight small battles of quick decision. Comrade Mao Tsetung has summed up the tactics of guerrilla warfare in this way: "The enemy advances, we retreat; the enemy camps, we harass; the enemy tires, we attack; the enemy retreats, we pursue."
     6. It is necessary to build a people's army. Comrade Mao Tsetung, the great teacher cf people's war, teaches us that "without a people's army the people have nothing." The people's army can only be formed in the course of struggle. It should be an army composed fundamentally of the poorest masses of the population, namely, the peasants, agricultural labourers and workers. It should also include students and Intellectuals. It serves the people and consciously guides itself by its discipline. Its members should become examples of heroism, selflessness and faithfulness to the revolutionary cause.
     7. The crucial problem in unfolding a people's war is the establishment of bases of support in the country-side, which is a fundamental guarantee for the preservation and development of the revolutionary forces. They are the base for sustaining the guerrilla units and people's army in carrying out a protracted war. When operating in a given area, the guerrilla forces should always keep in mind the objective of establishing bases of support. Their principal task is to win the participation of the masses in the revolution and strive to take root deeply among the population of the area where they are operating.
     8. In view of the fact that the enemy is strong and we are weak, the people's fighters have to develop their struggle within the framework of the strategic defensive in the initial stage of people's war so as to accumulate and gain strength. But the strategic defensive does not mean passiveness. The revolutionary armed forces should have maximum initiative. Only when a change has taken place in the balance of strength between the two contesting sides, that is, when the revolutionary forces have become strong, will the war enter the stage of stalemate, and then the stage of the strategic offensive, when the people's forces have gained military superiority and have the conditions to deal the enemy fatal blows.
     9. Without a correct political orientation, people's war cannot be successful. The primary objective of people's war is to liberate our country from U.S. domination, from the decadent structure hindering the progress of Brazil and from the present reactionary regime. It seeks to establish a revolutionary people's government to ensure national independence, freedom of the people, culture and well-being of the people, land for the peasants and the nation's all-round economic development.
  The third part of the document sums up the lessons drawn from the armed struggles in Brazil over scores of years and criticizes a number of erroneous anti-Marxist-Leninist viewpoints on the question of armed struggle.
     It points out: For scores of years, a number of Brazilian patriotic democrats carried out various kinds of armed struggle. For example, the military uprisings of 1922-24, 1931 and 1935. However, they all failed because these military uprisings were neither based on the actions of the masses nor subordinated to the needs of the revolutionary movement. Another kind of armed struggle look place in Brazil between 1924 and 1927 when an armed column covered a very long distance from the south to the north; yet it did not and could not take root among the inland population because of its purely military viewpoint and pure nomadism, and because it neglected the peasant masses.
     Repudiating the so-called theory of guerrilla "centre" which has been in circulation in recent years, the document points out: The advocates of this theory maintain that by means of the brave actions of a small group of persons alone, they can attract new combatants and lead the revolution to victory. They also hold that a revolutionary party of the proletariat is unnecessary since the guerrilla is in itself the party. They do not believe that the masses can grasp revolutionary ideas and plunge themselves into the struggle. They divorce themselves from the masses and engage solely in armed actions. They hold a purely military viewpoint. This theory has been proved in practice to be entirely false. It has failed in Peru, Argentina, Bolivia and other countries.
     The document points out that the struggle of the people against their mortal enemies cannot be reduced to the action of an armed group. To negate the leadership of the Party is, in essence, to oppose the leadership of the proletariat in the revolution. Without the leadership of a revolutionary party, no victory can be achieved in the armed struggle.
     The fourth part of the document deals with the emergence and development of people's war.
     It points out that the Brazilian dictatorial regime is becoming more and more brutal and, therefore, the outbreak of the people's struggle is inevitable. At the beginning, the armed struggle will take the form of guerrilla warfare. It should be well organized and always have a firm leadership which constantly carries out political and ideological work. The guerrilla forces should have a mass content and a clear political objective.
     The fifth part of the document stresses that the Brazilian people are bound to win the people's war against their principal enemies — the U.S. imperialists and the domestic reactionary forces. All the actions of the Brazilian armed forces, with U.S. equipment and advice, are aimed at suppressing the people's struggle; their training and preparations are directed at people's war. But though powerful in appearance, the reactionary armed forces are actually vulnerable. They cannot withstand the blows of people's war which will surely defeat them. The enemy will be drowned in the ocean of people's war. The flames of revolutionary struggle, once kindled even in remote places, will infuse new hope into millions of Brazilians who long to throw themselves heart and soul into their own struggle for which they are prepared to shed their blood.
  The document says: In the great struggle of people's war, the Brazilian people will bring about a union of all patriots for independence, progress and freedom.
The basis of this union is the indestructible alliance; of workers and peasants. Joining in the union will bt? I he broadest sections of the people, all those who do not want to join hands with the dictatorship or serve as lackeys of U.S. imperialism.
     The document says that the greatest Marxist-Leninist of our era Comrade Mao Tsetung has said: "Experience in the class struggle in the era of imperialism teaches us that it is only by the power of the gun that the working class and the labouring masses can defeat the armed bourgeoisie and landlords; in this sense we may say that only with guns can the whole world be transformed."
     Expounding the tasks of the Communist Party of Brazil, the final part of the document says that the Communist Party of Brazil in August 1964 elaborated the road of armed struggle. It pointed out at that time that the peasant question is the key problem of the revolution, that U.S. imperialism is the principal enemy of the people, that the national-democratic united front has acquired a sufficiently broad character, and that the leadership of the democratic anti-imperialist movement must be in the hands of the proletariat. At its Sixth National Conference in 1966, the Communist Party of Brazil defined the road of armed struggle as that of people's war.
     The document says: The study of Comrade Mao Tsetung's works on revolutionary wars has guided us in elaborating the road of armed struggle.
     The document says: The essence of the strategy of the Party, as defined in its programme manifesto, is the establishment of a revolutionary people's government through armed struggle, people's war. The concrete policy of the Party is to unite all patriots, concentrate the attack on U.S. imperialism and the military dictatorship, unfold actions by the masses in the cities and countryside on an ever larger scale, give priority to the work in the interior, utilize all forms of struggle, and prepare for and initiate the armed struggle which is the essential part of these tactics.
     Since its Sixth National Conference, the document says, the Communist Party of Brazil has pointed out the need to shift the centre of gravity in its work to the countryside. This is a decisive question because the people's war will be carried out fundamentally in the interior and the fighters will come principally from among the peasants. The Party must pay full attention to Party building in the interior. The establishment of Party organizations in the countryside is the guarantee for the fulfilment of the basic task of preparing and initialing people's war. At the same time, it is also indispensable to expand the ranks of the Party in the cities.
     The document points out: The Brazilian people's armed struggle will be extremely arduous, but it will be the most glorious chapter in the history of Brazil. The victory of this struggle will open bright prospects for the country.   The document notes that Comrade Lin Piao has said: "The sacrifice of a small number of people in revolutionary wars is repaid by security for whole nations, whole countries and even the whole of mankind: temporary suffering is repaid by lasting or even perpetual peace and happiness. War can temper the people and push history forward. In this sense, war is a great school."
     The struggle for the liberation of Brazil, the document says, is a part of the common struggle of the people of the world against the "holy alliance" of the U.S. imperialists, Soviet revisionists and reactionaries of all countries.  The revolutionary actions now being unfolded in Asia, Africa and Latin America arc a support and encouragement to the Brazilian people.
     The document says that the firm position of China in opposition to the criminal Soviet-U.S. collusion is the most valuable support to all those fighting against U.S. imperialism. The consistent attitude of the People's Republic of Albania in dealing with the imperialists and revisionists is also an important aid to the revolutionaries. Once they launch a people's war, the Brazilian people will have extensive international support. Following the road of people's war, they will have the most promising prospects of victory.
    
  
  
  

 
 
顶端 Posted: 2009-02-27 03:19 | [楼 主]
帖子浏览记录 版块浏览记录
中国文革研究网 » CR DOCUMENTS
 
 

Total 0.009894(s) query 3, Time now is:11-20 21:55, Gzip enabled
Powered by PHPWind v6.3.2 Certificate © http://wengewang.tk