本页主题: Working Class Triumphantly Leading the Struggle-Criticism-Transformation In the Superstructure 打印 | 加为IE收藏 | 复制链接 | 收藏主题 | 上一主题 | 下一主题

weihong2
级别: 论坛版主


精华: 0
发帖: 1693
威望: 1694 点
红花: 16930 朵
贡献值: 0 点
在线时间:406(小时)
注册时间:2007-05-31
最后登录:2009-08-25

 Working Class Triumphantly Leading the Struggle-Criticism-Transformation In the Superstructure

图片:
图片:
Working Class Triumphantly Leading the Struggle-Criticism-Transformation In the Superstructure

Source: Peking Review. No. 23, June 6, 1969
Transcribed by www.wengewang.org


     As in other fields all over China, the mass movement of struggle-criticism-transformation is being unfolded in a deep-going way on the cultural, art, education, journalism and health fronts. All these are important departments in the superstructure where intellectuals were predominant in number and places long dominated by the persons in power taking the capitalist road. For many years prior to the great cultural revolution, the renegade, hidden traitor and scab Liu Shao-chi and his agents regarded these departments as important tools for restoring capitalism, and exercised the leadership they had usurped there to propagate a large amount of feudal, bourgeois and revisionist trash, suppress the worker, peasant and soldier masses and feverishly oppose the dictatorship of the proletariat. In such circumstances, these departments have always been the frontline of the struggle between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie.
     In accordance with Chairman Mao's great strategic plan, Mao Tsetung Thought propaganda teams organized by the working class have gradually entered the units in the realm of the superstructure since last July. They have shouldered the task of leading the struggle-criticism-transformation there.
     After the working class enters the various departments of the superstructure, it first of all firmly grasps the fundamental: using Mao Tsetung Thought to command and transform everything and letting Mao Tsetung Thought occupy every position. It organizes the revolutionary masses to run Mao Tsetung Thought study classes and to carry out Chairman Mao's latest instructions. It uses invincible Mao Tsetung Thought to re-educate the intellectuals there so as to rally them closely around the proletariat in forming mighty revolutionary contingents to struggle against the enemies, unfold revolutionary mass criticism, purify the class ranks and consolidate the Party and fulfil other tasks in struggle-criticism-transformation. At the same time it leads the masses in carrying out all Chairman Mao's proletarian policies.
     The following three articles show the way in which the working class puts Chairman Mao's great teaching "the working class must exercise leadership in everything" into effect in leading and pushing forward the victorious advance of struggle-criticism-transformation in the realm of the superstructure so as to change the outlook of these places. — Ed.
    




Uniting With the Majority of the Intellectuals and Re-educating Them

THE workers' and P.L.A. men’s Mao Tsetung Thought propaganda team stationed in Hopei University organized the revolutionary teachers, students and staff there to study Chairman Mao's latest teaching: "The proletariat is the greatest class in the history of mankind. It is the most powerful revolutionary class ideologically, politically and in strength. It can and must unite the overwhelming majority of people around itself so as to isolate the handful of enemies to the maximum and attack them."  They have carried out Chairman Mao's different proletarian policies towards the intellectuals; made a strict distinction between the two different types of contradictions — contradictions between the enemy and ourselves and contradictions among the people — and united, educated and remoulded the majority of the intellectuals, thereby giving a powerful impetus to the development of the struggle-criticism-transformation in breadth and in depth.
     The majority of the university's professors and lecturers come from exploiting class families. They have relatively complicated personal histories and social connections. The education they received in the past was a bourgeois one. Their world outlook had not been transformed very well, and most of them had carried out the counter-revolutionary revisionist line in education and spread a lot of feudal, bourgeois and revisionist poisonous rubbish. At the beginning, some comrades did not fully understand the importance of winning over, uniting with and educating the majority of the intellectuals. Such people thought they would rather be "Left" than Right. They regarded the old-type intellectuals as "a mess," and felt that the policy of uniting the majority was not applicable to the university. As a result, the Party's policy towards the intellectuals could not be swiftly carried out.
     To solve these problems, the propaganda team organized the revolutionary teachers and students to run Mao Tsetung Thought study classes.
     The team organized the leading members, people who do investigation work on persons with political problems, revolutionary teachers and students, professors, lecturers, and dependents of those with political problems to repeatedly study Chairman Mao's latest instructions concerned and his brilliant works such as On Policy, Recruit Large Numbers of Intellectuals, On Some Important Problems of the Party's Present Policy, On the Correct Handling of Contradictions Among the People, Speech at the Chinese Communist Party's National Conference on Propaganda Work. They discussed these in the light of the actual conditions and deepened their understanding of the Party's policies. Many revolutionary teachers and students said: "Chairman Mao has long ago taught us that 'the overwhelming majority of the intellectuals in our country want to make progress and remould themselves, and they are quite capable of remoulding themselves.' In the past we only saw their complicated histories and their problems, but not their desire to remould themselves. Such is very serious one-sidedness."
  On the basis of raising the level of their understanding, the propaganda team mobilized the masses to look for the gap between their work and the advanced experience of Tsinghua University, and to sum up their experiences and lessons in carrying out policy. By comparing themselves with those with advanced experience, the comrades in the biology faculty found their gap. As a result, they strengthened education of several lecturers who had committed mistakes or had ordinary problems of a political nature in their histories and "liberated" them in time. They also fostered some activists among lecturers who come from exploiting class families but who have given a good account of themselves politically. Other faculties were spurred on by their action.
  Taking Chairman Mao's policy towards the intellectuals their weapon, revolutionary masses in many faculties made a class, historical and dialectical analysis of the problems of a particular professor or lecturer, or analysed in an all-round way the situation of the professors and lecturers in their faculty or in a teaching and study team. Through these analyses of typical cases, they deepened their understanding of the Party's policies, thus gaining a correct understanding of the ranks of the intellectuals. For instance, after the serious mistakes of a "diehard" professor had been related, manifestations of his willingness to remould were also brought up. As a result of this kind of all-round analysis, many people said: "These people are quite capable of being remoulded. As has been done in Tsinghua University, we should severely criticize their mistakes, do political and ideological work well and show initiative in stimulating their transformation."
     Through a series of work, they came to understand the meaning of Chairman Mao's teaching of "bringing all positive factors into play, of uniting with everyone that can be united with, and of doing everything possible to turn negative factors into positive ones." That is, expanding the revolutionary ranks to the maximum and isolating the handful of class enemies to the maximum is Chairman Mao's consistent thinking which should also be the general thinking guiding our implementation of the Party's policies.
     The professors and lecturers come from the old society, and in general, their political histories are comparatively complex and their bourgeois ideology quite rampant. Taking this into consideration, the propaganda team acted in accordance with Chairman Mao's teachings that we "should . . . adopt a careful attitude towards" the intellectuals and that "we should unite with them, educate them and give them posts according to the merits of each case, and only a tiny number of die-hard counter-revolutionaries among them will hove to be appropriately dealt with through the mass line." The team led the revolutionary teachers and students to strictly observe policy, to unite, educate and remould the majority of the intellectuals, and deal heavy blows at the handful of the diehard class enemies only. There was. for instance, one professor who had political problems in the past, but had confessed to them and has behaved quite well since liberation. After unifying their thinking, the propaganda team and revolutionary teachers and students put faith in him boldly and helped him get rid of his mental "burden." This professor has made big progress ideologically through education.
     Some professors and lecturers had spread bourgeois ideology and bourgeois reactionary academic views. The propaganda team guided the revolutionary teachers and students to distinguish these people from those who viciously attacked socialism from a reactionary stand. They severely criticized their bourgeois world outlook and reactionary academic views, and at the same time patiently did ideological and educational work to lead them to understand gradually the reactionary nature of their world outlook and academic views, and be resolute in undergoing a thorough transformation.
     With regard to those in the enemy camp, the propaganda team, following Chairman Mao's teaching of "giving a way out," adopted the policy of dealing with each case on its merits and dividing and disintegrating them. It acted leniently towards those who had admitted their crimes and had confessed thoroughly. Thus, they have united with all those who could be united and isolated the handful of the diehard class enemies.
     The great leader Chairman Mao teaches us: "Our task is to unite with all intellectuals, artists and doctors of the old type who can be useful, to help them, convert them and transform them." "The remoulding of the intellectuals remains a question of major significance throughout the course of the socialist revolution and socialist construction." Uniting with the majority of the intellectuals cannot replace re-educating them. The propaganda team held that the fundamental tasks for the working class in leading the revolution in education are to exercise the leadership politically and using Mao Tsetung Thought to re-educate the intellectuals. In giving re-education, the propaganda team mainly guided them to study Chairman Mao's great theory of continuing the revolution under the dictatorship of the proletariat, repudiate the counter-revolutionary revisionist line in education advanced by the big renegade Liu Shao-chi and his agents, denounce the handful of counter-revolutionaries who hid themselves in the ranks of the intellectuals, criticize the reactionary bourgeois thinking and reactionary academic views spread by some intellectuals, so as to enhance their consciousness of class struggle and the struggle between the two lines, thus ideologically and politically helping them become aware of their mistakes, and solve the questions of whom to hate, whom to love and whom to follow.
  The propaganda team led the professors and lecturers to join with the revolutionary teachers and students in studying and applying Mao Tsetung Thought in a living way in struggle-criticism-transformation, and to sum up their experiences and lessons in remoulding their thinking. It carried out class education by having them visit exhibitions and hear reports recalling the past sufferings of the working people. After visiting the exhibition on class education in Santiaoshih, an old industrial area in Tientsin, some professors and lecturers said: "The process of hearing about the past misery of veteran workers is the process by which we criticize ourselves. We promise to do well in receiving the workers, peasants and soldiers' re-education so that we can thoroughly remould ourselves." In addition, they also took part in suitable manual labour and added to the working people's ideology and sentiments in their own minds.
     Acting in accordance with Chairman Mao's teaching: "We should assign appropriate work to all intellectuals who are reasonably loyal and useful, and we should earnestly give them political education and guidance so that in the long course of the struggle they gradually overcome their weaknesses," the propaganda team paid attention to bringing into play the role of the professors and lecturers in the struggle-criticism-transformation. The propaganda team and the revolutionary teachers and students let a professor take part in the leading work of the group for revolutionizing education. He said with emotion: "This is the greatest faith and encouragement Chairman Mao has put in me. I'm determined to receive re-education from the workers, peasants and soldiers and to follow Chairman Mao in making revolution all my life." Together with the revolutionary teachers and students, he enthusiastically went to the countryside to make investigations and study.
    
Helping Cadres Who Made Mistakes Return to Chairman Mao's Revolutionary Line

"FOLLOWING Chairman Mao's teachings that "we must unite with the great majority of the cadres” and "as for good people who have made mistakes, they should be given more help through education, and when they are awakened, they should be promptly liberated," the workers' and P.L.A. men's Mao Tsetung Thought propaganda team stationed in the Opera and Dance Theatre of Kirin Province, helped the theatre's revolutionary masses act according to Chairman Mao's policy towards the cadres in analysing the problems of the cadres in the theatre who had made mistakes, and conscientiously did a good job of ideological and political work. As a result, a number of cadres who had made mistakes raised their level of consciousness, returned to Chairman Mao's proletarian revolutionary line, and have been promptly liberated.
     The revisionist line in literature and art had a very profound influence on this theatre. For more than a decade, the five high level cadres and some cadres at the middle level* in the theatre had carried out this revisionist line. They also carried out the bourgeois reactionary line in the great cultural rev6fution. Some, comrades believed that the theatre was different from other places and therefore could not, like the other units, unite the great majority of the cadres.
     After repeated investigations and study in the theatre, comrades in the propaganda team considered that though the situation was rather complex there, Chairman Mao's analysis concerning the cadres and his policy towards them were universally applicable. The fact that some comrades stressed the "peculiarity" of the theatre in carrying out the policy towards the cadres was mainly the result of failing, in a fairly complex situation, to make a concrete analysis of concrete conditions according to Chairman Mao's teachings. Therefore, the team organized a Mao Tsetung Thought study class in which participants studied the related teachings of Chairman Mao and the Party's policy, and concretely analysed each of the cadres at the theatre's high level. This class helped the revolutionary masses raise their ideological understanding and clarify the following three questions:
     1. Though these cadres had done many bad things, the majority, who had carried out Liu Shao-chi's counter-revolutionary revisionist line in literature and art, are different from counter-revolutionaries who plotted to restore capitalism and frantically opposed Chairman Mao's revolutionary line.
     2. The main reason they made mistakes is that they did not have a high level of consciousness of the struggle between the two lines. In solving the cadre problem, stress should be laid on helping them differentiate right from wrong in the struggle between the two lines, raise their ideological consciousness and avoid making similar mistakes in the future. Emphasis should not be put on personal responsibility.
     3. Though these cadres had arrived at the brink of danger, they have all been educated through serious criticism in the tremendous movement of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution. As long as the revolutionary masses conscientiously carry out the policy, these cadres can be saved.
     It is therefore necessary to give them more help through education in accordance with Chairman Mao's teachings and to win them over instead of pushing them to the side of the enemy.
     This analysis helped the revolutionary masses see more clearly that Chairman Mao's policy towards the cadres is a universally applicable truth and that in the literary and art units, though the situation is relatively complex, this policy should also be firmly carried out. After they had increased their understanding, they all took action under the leadership of the propaganda team to earnestly carry out the policy and do a good job in "liberating" the cadres.
  One leading cadre had heard Chairman Mao deliver the Talks at the Yenan Forum on Literature and Art in Yenan in the 1940s. Following Chairman Mao's teachings, he took part in creative work and performances in Yenan's Lu Hsun Art Academy. Because he was corrupted by the counter-revolutionary revisionist line in literature and art of Liu Shao-chi and Chou Yang, he later changed gradually.
     In the light of his specific case, the revolutionary masses were emphatic in leading him to review and sum up his historical experience in the struggle between the two lines over the past 30 and more years since he joined the revolution. They helped him dig out the reasons that had brought about such a transformation, sec the danger of such a degeneration and find out the direction of his future advance. This kind of education touched him to his innermost being. He pledged his determination to deeply criticize his mistakes, resolutely correct them and return to Chairman Mao's revolutionary line.
  Another cadre who had made mistakes did not give prominence to proletarian politics and was not concerned with the struggle between the two lines. Although she had done some good things, she also carried out the revisionist line in literature and art. She did many bad things which she considered good deeds. Criticism could not convince her. The revolutionary masses helped her make a concrete analysis of Chairman Mao's proletarian line in literature and art and Liu Shao-chi's counter-revolutionary revisionist line in literature and art. Her level of consciousness of the struggle between the two lines was greatly raised by this, and she saw clearly the many serious mistakes she made and was deter mined to honestly accept the criticism of the masses, correct her mistakes and turn over a new leaf.
     As these cadres began to change, some comrades entertained new thoughts. Some comrades wanted to "liberate" a cadre who had made mistakes but had made only a very preliminary self-examination. Members of the propaganda team held that the "liberation" of cadres was a very serious and important matter which could never be carelessly handled. The team guided the revolutionary masses to discuss, in relation to this case, the fundamental aim and great significance of "liberating" the cadres. This helped the masses understand that only when the cadres were helped to raise their level of consciousness of the struggle between the two lines and of class struggle could they be really "liberated." This was the genuine attitude of "cure the sickness to save the patient." Otherwise, it is similar to allowing a patient who has not been cured to leave the hospital. Sooner or later, the disease will recur and bring on more serious consequences. This not only educated the masses but further educated the cadres who had made mistakes. Very moved, the cadre who had made mistakes said: I thank Chairman Mao for his concern and the comrades for their help. I am determined to criticize my mistakes together with the comrades and unswervingly follow Chairman Man in making revolution. She quickly made a self-examination that touched her to her being and won the understanding of the masses.
     The comrades in the propaganda team then gave the revolutionary masses a new task: to do a good job among the "liberated" cadres.
  The revolutionary masses in the theatre are now using various methods to help the "liberated" cadres constantly raise their level of consciousness and make big efforts to remould their world outlook. Their outlook is going through profound changes.
  
Big Changes in Tungfanghung Hospital Under Working-Class Leadership

THE Tungfanghung Hospital is a big hospital specializing in neurosurgery in Peking. It has undergone enormous changes since the workers' and P.L.A. men's Mao Tsetung Thought propaganda team entered it last September and remoulded it according to Mao Tsetung Thought.
     Before the great cultural revolution, the hospital was controlled by a handful of capitalist roaders in the Party and bourgeois reactionary "authorities" who pushed Liu Shao-chi's counter-revolutionary revisionist line in every respect. At that time, many poor and lower-middle peasants who came from far away for medical attention received very perfunctory treatment. Highly indignant, they said: "This isn't a hospital for us poor and lower-middle peasants.''
     Chairman Mao says: "This question of 'for whom?’ is fundamental; it is a question of principle."

The propaganda team has grasped this firmly since it entered the hospital. Following Chairman Mao's teaching: "In medical and health work, put the stress on the rural areas," the propaganda team organized the medical staff to go to the countryside in groups to serve the poor and lower-middle peasants directly. In addition, the hospital has opened a special clinic for the poor and lower-middle peasants. It has abolished irrational regulations, such as limiting the number of daily consultations, which caused the poor and lower-middle peasants considerable inconvenience.
     One poor peasant woman said happily: "I didn't use to like coming to this hospital because the procedures were too complicated for getting medical attention and medicine. We had to wait a long time and the doctors treated us very casually because we were poorly dressed and they considered us dirty. Chairman Mao's instruction that 'the working class must exercise leadership in everything' is wonderful. Now that the hospital is led by the working class it is quite different. The doctors treat us like their kith and kin. They give us prompt attention when we come to the clinic and give us injections and medicine without delay. They are doing an excellent job."
  Another poor peasant said excitedly: "It was late the night I brought my wife to the hospital, and the out-patients department was closed. But a doctor ignored his meal to give her a careful examination. He told me she needed an operation. There wasn't a vacant bed in the hospital, so he arranged a temporary lodging for us in a small room next to the out-patients clinic and lit a stove for us, too.
     "My wife had a pituitary tumour and was afraid of an operation. But when she saw the comrades of the propaganda team in the operation theatre leading the doctors and nurses in reciting Chairman Mao's teaching on serving the people whole-heartedly, she stopped worrying. The operation was successful. I really don't know how to express my gratitude."
      The first thing the propaganda team did after entering the hospital was to promote the living study and application of Mao Tsetung Thought. The team helped the doctors and nurses fight self-interest and implant the idea of serving the people wholeheartedly deep in their minds.
     Many doctors and nurses in this hospital come from exploiting class families. Long divorced from productive labour and the masses, they did not have much feeling for the working people.
     Following Vice-Chairman Lin Piao's instruction: "Without knowing what classes are, without knowing what exploitation is, one will not be able to understand revolution," the Mao Tsetung Thought propaganda team made great efforts to give the medical workers class education. The team members often recounted the history of their families, so full of blood and tears, to help the medical workers understand the sufferings in the old society in contrast with the happiness of today. They also invited workers, peasants and soldiers to the hospital to give reports describing how they suffered in the old society.
     P.L.A. fighter Chen Chan-wu's family worked like beasts of burden for the landlords for generations. They never owned a single house or a plot of land. Out of the family of ten, eight were brutally driven to death. Two uncles were killed by the Japanese aggressors. The Japanese gangsters threw his two aunts into a big cauldron of boiling, oil after violating them. Another uncle worked for a landlord as a hirehand. Dissatisfied with the amount of firewood he had cut, the landlord cut off his arms, tied him up with rope and drowned him in a well.
     This aroused the medical workers' wrath against the old society, heightened their consciousness of class struggle and deepened their feelings for the working people. They pledged never to forget the working people's past sufferings and serve the workers, peasants and soldiers all their lives, in accordance with Chairman Mao's teachings.
     A number of patients whose ailments had been diagnosed as "incurable" and who were thrown out of the hospital came back when they heard that a propaganda team had entered the hospital. They have all received effective treatment.
  One worker named Li Yen-shu had suffered from tumour of the choroid plexus of the fourth ventricle, a condition which endangered his brain. It was quite dangerous to have an operation. Deeply poisoned by the revisionist line in medical and health work, the chief doctor in charge of his case was afraid that if the operation failed his reputation would suffer. He merely made a small incision and then stitched it up.
     The patient came back after the propaganda team had entered the hospital. The team members started a special Mao Tsetung Thought study class for the doctors and nurses who were handling Li Yen-shu's case. They again studied In Memory of Norman Bethune to unify their thinking with Mao Tsetung Thought. The study class also roundly repudiated the renegade Liu Shao-chi's revisionist line in medical and health work. The doctors and nurses realized that this patient was their class brother and what attitude they took towards a sick class brother was a major issue concerning the defence of Chairman Mao's revolutionary line. Treating Li Yen-shu was a stern test for every one of them in whether they were serving the people "wholly" and "entirely." All pledged to do everything they could.
     In line with Chairman Mao's teachings, "strategically we should despise all our enemies, but tactically we should take them all seriously" and "the masses are the real heroes," the propaganda team called on the medical workers to study the case carefully and draw lessons from the previous operation. In the course of discussion three proposals on how to perform the operation were put forward, so as to cover all contingencies.
     During the operation, the propaganda team put Mao Tsetung Thought in command and encouraged the medical workers to surmount one difficulty after another. After more than seven hours of intense effort, in which they had the co-operation of the entire staff, they succeeded in completely removing the tumour which had tortured the patient for four years.
     With deepened understanding, the doctors said: "If we don't have a correct political point of view, we cannot bring our technique into full play. Poisoned by Liu Shao-chi's revisionist line in the past we pronounced many cases incurable. Actually many could have been cured if we had done everything possible. Now that we are guided by Mao Tsetung Thought and have working-class leadership, we not only dare to treat those cases we refused to consider in the past but we can cure them."
     Illuminated by the radiance of Mao Tsetung Thought, the hospital is now filled with a lively revolutionary atmosphere. The first thing the medical workers do when they come on duty is to study quotations from Chairman Mao related to the day's work. When they finish work they sum up the day's work with Mao Tsetung Thought.
     In contrast to the days before the cultural revolution, portraits of Chairman Mao and placards bearing quotations from Chairman Mao are put up in the wards. Every ward runs a Mao Tsetung Thought study class where the patients fight their diseases by studying and applying Mao Tsetung Thought in a living way. One young woman suffering from an abdominal tumour was very worried and did not talk much at first. After studying The Foolish Old Man Who Removed the Mountains in the study class with the help of the propaganda team, she was no longer worried and proved very co-operative during the operation. She later became head of the study group and helped other patients study and apply Chairman Mao's works in a living way.



Source: Peking Review. No. 23, June 6, 1969
Transcribed by www.wengewang.org

  
  
  

 
 
顶端 Posted: 2009-02-26 15:06 | [楼 主]
帖子浏览记录 版块浏览记录
中国文革研究网 » CR DOCUMENTS
 
 

Total 0.014505(s) query 3, Time now is:05-23 22:59, Gzip enabled
Powered by PHPWind v6.3.2 Certificate © http://wengewang.tk