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 Decision of the C.P.C. Central Committee Concerning the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution

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Decision of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party Concerning the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution


(Adopted on August 8, 1966)

Source: Peking Review, Vol. 9, #33, Aug. 12,1966, pp. 6-11.
Transcribed by www.WENGEWANG.ORG

1

A New Stage In the Socialist Revolution

   The great proletarian cultural revolution now unfolding is a great revolution that touches people to their very souls and constitutes a new stage in the development of the socialist revolution in our country, a deeper and more extensive stage.
   At the Tenth Plenary Session of the Eighth Central Committee of the Party, Comrade Mao Tse-tung said: To overthrow a political power, it is always necessary, first of all, to create public opinion, to do work in the ideological sphere. This is true for the revolutionary class as well as for the counterrevolutionary class. This thesis of Comrade Mao Tse-tung's has been proved entirely correct in practice.
   Although the bourgeoisie has been overthrown, it is still trying to use the old ideas, culture, customs and habits of the exploiting classes to corrupt the masses, capture their minds and endeavour to stage a come-back. The proletariat must do just the opposite: it must meet head-on every challenge of the bourgeoisie in the ideological field and use the new ideas, culture, customs and habits of the proletariat to change the mental outlook of the whole of society. At present, our objective is to struggle against and crush those persons in authority who are taking the capitalist road, to criticize and repudiate the reactionary bourgeois academic "authorities" and the ideology of the bourgeoisie and all other exploiting classes and to transform education, literature and art and all other parts of the superstructure that do not correspond to the socialist economic base, so as to facilitate the consolidation and development of the socialist system.

2

The Main Current and the Zigzags

   The masses of the workers, peasants, soldiers, revolutionary intellectuals and revolutionary cadres form the main force in this great cultural revolution. Large numbers of revolutionary young people, previously unknown, have become courageous and daring pathbreakers. They are vigorous in action and intelligent. Through the media of big-character posters and great debates, they argue things out, expose and criticize thoroughly, and launch resolute attacks on the open and hidden representatives of the bourgeoisie. In such a great revolutionary movement, it is hardly avoidable that they should show shortcomings of one kind or another, but their main revolutionary orientation has been correct from the beginning. This is the main current in the great proletarian cultural revolution. It is the main direction along which the great proletarian cultural revolution continues to advance.
   Since the cultural revolution is a revolution, it inevitably meets with resistance. This resistance comes chiefly from those in authority who have wormed their way into the Party and are taking the capitalist road. It also comes from the old force of habit in society. At present, this resistance is still fairly strong and stubborn. However, the great proletarian cultural revolution is, after ail, an irresistible general trend. There is abundant evidence that such resistance will crumble fast once the masses become fully aroused.
   Because the resistance is fairly strong, there will be reversals and even repeated reversals in this struggle. There is no harm in this. It tempers the proletariat and other working people, and especially the younger generation, teaches them lessons and gives them experience, and helps them to understand that the revolutionary road is a zigzag one, and not plain sailing.

3

Put Daring Above Everything Else And Boldly Arouse the Masses

   The outcome of this great cultural revolution will be determined by whether the Party leadership does or does not dare boldly to arouse the masses.
   Currently, there are four different situations with regard to the leadership being given to the movement of cultural revolution by Party organizations at various levels:
   (1) There is the situation in which the persons in charge of Party organizations stand in the van of the movement and dare to arouse the masses boldly. They put daring above everything else, they are dauntless communist fighters and good pupils of Chairman Mao. They advocate the big-character posters and great debates. They encourage the masses to expose every kind of ghost and monster and also to criticize the shortcomings and errors in the work of the persons in charge. This correct kind of leadership is the result of putting proletarian politics in the forefront and Mao Tse-tung's thought in the lead.
   (2) In many units, the persons in charge have a very poor understanding of the task of leadership in this great struggle, their leadership is far from being conscientious and effective, and they accordingly find themselves incompetent and in a weak position. They put fear above everything else, stick to out-moded ways and regulations, and are unwilling to break away from conventional practices and move ahead. They have been taken unawares by the new order of things, the revolutionary order of the masses, with the result that their leadership lags behind the situation, lags behind the masses.
   (3) In some units, the persons in charge, who made mistakes of one kind or another in the past, are even more prone to put fear above everything else, being afraid that the masses will catch them out. Actually, if they make serious self-criticism and accept the criticism of the masses, the Party and the masses will make allowances for their mistakes. But if the persons in charge don't, they will continue to make mistakes and become obstacles to the mass movement.
   (4) Some units are controlled by those who have wormed their way into the Party and are taking the capitalist road. Such persons in authority are extremely afraid of being exposed by the masses and therefore seek every possible pretext to suppress the mass movement. They resort to such tactics as shifting the targets for attack and turning black into white in an attempt to lead the movement astray. When they find themselves very isolated and no longer able to carry on as before, they resort still more to intrigues, stabbing people in the back, spreading rumours, and blurring the distinction between revolution and counter-revolution as much as they can, all for the purpose of attacking the revolutionaries.
   What the Central Committee of the Party demands of the Party committees at all levels is that they persevere in giving correct leadership, put daring above everything else, boldly arouse the masses, change the state of weakness and incompetence where it exists, encourage those comrades who have made mistakes but are willing to correct them to cast off their mental burdens and join in the struggle, and dismiss from their leading posts all those in authority who are taking the capitalist road and so make possible the recapture of the leadership for the proletarian revolutionaries.

4

Let the Masses Educate Themselves in the Movement

   In the great proletarian cultural revolution, the only method is for the masses to liberate themselves, and any method of doing things on their behalf must not be used.
   Trust the masses, rely on them and respect their initiative. Cast out fear. Don't be afraid of disorder. Chairman Mao has often told us that revolution cannot be so very refined, so gentle, so temperate, kind, courteous, restrained and magnanimous. Let the masses educate themselves in this great revolutionary movement and learn to distinguish between right and wrong and between correct and incorrect ways of doing things.
   Make the fullest use of big-character posters and great debates to argue matters out, so that the masses can clarify the correct views, criticize the wrong views and expose all the ghosts and monsters. In this way the masses will be able to raise their political consciousness in the course of the struggle, enhance their abilities and talents, distinguish right from wrong and draw a clear line between the enemy and ourselves.

5

Firmly Apply the Class Line Of the Party

   Who are our enemies? Who are our friends? This is a question of the first importance for the revolution and it is likewise a question of the first importance for the great cultural revolution.
   Party leadership should be good at discovering the Left and developing and strengthening the ranks of the Left, and should firmly rely on the revolutionary Left. During the movement this is the only way to isolate thoroughly the most reactionary Rightists, win over the middle and unite with the great majority so that by the end of the movement we shall achieve the unity of more than 95 per cent of the cadres and more than 95 per cent of the masses.
   Concentrate all forces to strike at the handful of ultra-reactionary bourgeois Rightists and counter-revolutionary revisionists, and expose and criticize to the full their crimes against the Party, against socialism and against Mao Tse-tung's thought so as to isolate them to the maximum.
   The main target of the present movement is those within the Party who are in authority and are taking the capitalist road.
   Care should be taken to distinguish strictly between the anti-Party, anti-socialist Rightists and those who support the Party and socialism but have said or done something wrong or have written some bad articles or other works.
   Care should be taken to distinguish strictly between the reactionary bourgeois scholar despots and "authorities" on the one hand and people who have the ordinary bourgeois academic ideas on the other.

6

Correct Handling of Contradictions Among the People

   A strict distinction must be made between the two different types of contradictions: those among the people and those between ourselves and the enemy. Contradictions among the people must not be made into contradictions between ourselves and the enemy; nor must contradictions between ourselves and the enemy be regarded as those among the people.
   It is normal for the masses to hold different views. Contention between different views is unavoidable, necessary and beneficial. In the course of normal and full debate, the masses will affirm what is right, correct what is wrong and gradually reach unanimity.
   The method to be used in debates is to present the facts, reason things out, and persuade through reasoning. Any method of forcing a minority holding different views to submit is impermissible. The minority should be protected, because sometimes the truth is with the minority. Even if the minority is wrong, they should still be allowed to argue their case and reserve their views.
   When there is a debate, it should be conducted by reasoning, not by coercion or force.
   In the course of debate, every revolutionary should be good at thinking things out for himself and should develop the communist spirit of daring to think, daring to speak and daring to act. On the premise that they have the same main orientation, revolutionary comrades should, for the sake of strengthening unity, avoid endless debate over side issues.

7

Be on Guard Against Those Who Brand the Revolutionary Masses As "Counter-Revolutionaries"

   In certain schools, units, and work teams of the cultural revolution, some of the persons in charge have organized counter-attacks against the masses who put up big-character posters against them. These people have even advanced such slogans as: opposition to the leaders of a unit or a work team means opposition to the Party's Central Committee, means opposition to the Party and socialism, means counter-revolution. In this way it is inevitable that their blows will fall on some really revolutionary activists. This is an error on matters of orientation, an error of line, and is absolutely impermissible.
   A number of persons who suffer from serious ideological errors, and particularly some of the anti-Party and anti-socialist Rightists, are taking advantage of certain shortcomings and mistakes in the mass movement to spread rumours and gossip, and engage in agitation, deliberately branding some of the masses as "counter-revolutionaries." It is necessary to beware of such "pick-pockets" and expose their tricks in good time.
   In the course of the movement, with the exception of cases of active counter-revolutionaries where there is clear evidence of crimes such as murder, arson, poisoning, sabotage or theft of state secrets, which should be handled in accordance with the law, no measures should be taken against students at universities, colleges, middle schools and primary schools because of problems that arise in the movement. To prevent the struggle from being diverted from its main objective, it is not allowed, whatever the pretext, to incite the masses to struggle against each other or the students to do likewise. Even proven Rightists should be dealt with on the merits of each case at a later stage of the movement.

8

The Question of Cadres

   The cadres fall roughly into the following four categories:
(1) good;
(2) comparatively good:
(3) those who have made serious mistakes but have not become anti-Party, anti-socialist Rightists;
(4) the small number of anti-Party, anti-socialist Rightists.
   In ordinary situations, the first two categories (good and comparatively good) arc the great majority.
   The anti-Party, anti-socialist Rightists must be fully exposed, hit hard, pulled down and completely discredited and their influence eliminated. At the same time, they should be given a way out so that they can turn over a new leaf.

9

Cultural Revolutionary Groups, Committees and Congresses

   Many new things have begun to emerge in the great proletarian cultural revolution. The cultural revolutionary groups, committees and other organizational forms created by the masses in many schools and units are something new and of great historic importance.
   These cultural revolutionary groups, committees and congresses are excellent new forms of organization whereby under the leadership of the Communist Party the masses are educating themselves. They are an excellent bridge to keep our Party in close contact with the masses. They are organs of power of the proletarian cultural revolution.
   The struggle of the proletariat against the old ideas, culture, customs and habits left over from all the exploiting classes over thousands of years will necessarily take a very, very long time. Therefore, the cultural revolutionary groups, committees and congresses should not be temporary organizations but permanent, standing mass organizations. They are suitable not only for colleges, schools and government and other organizations, but generally also for factories, mines, other enterprises, urban districts and villages.
   It is necessary to institute a system of general elections, like that of the Paris Commune, for electing members to the cultural revolutionary groups and committees and delegates to the cultural revolutionary congresses. The lists of candidates should be put forward by the revolutionary masses after full discussion, and the elections should be held after the masses have discussed the lists over and over again.
   The masses are entitled at any time to criticize members of the cultural revolutionary groups and committees and delegates elected to the cultural revolutionary congresses. If these members or delegates prove incompetent, they can be replaced through election or recalled by the masses after discussion.
   The cultural revolutionary groups, committees and congresses in colleges and schools should consist mainly of representatives of the revolutionary students. At the same time, they should have a certain number of representatives of the revolutionary teaching staff and workers.


10

Educational Reform
    
   In the great proletarian cultural revolution a most important task is to transform the old educational system and the old principles and methods of teaching.
   In this great cultural revolution, the phenomenon of our schools being dominated by bourgeois intellectuals must be completely changed.
   In every kind of school we must apply thoroughly the policy advanced by Comrade Mao Tse-tung, of education serving proletarian politics and education being combined with productive labour, so-as to enable those receiving an education to develop morally, intellectually and physically and to become labourers with socialist consciousness and culture.
   The period of schooling should be shortened. Courses should be fewer and better. The teaching material should be thoroughly transformed, in some cases beginning with simplifying complicated material. While their main task is to study, students should also learn other things. That is to say, in addition to their studies they should also learn industrial work, farming and military affairs, and take part in the struggles of the cultural revolution as they occur to criticize the bourgeoisie.


11

The Question of Criticizing By Name in the Press

   In the course of the mass movement of the cultural revolution, the criticism of bourgeois and feudal ideology should be well combined with the dissemination of the proletarian world outlook and of Marxism-Leninism. Mao Tse-tung's thought.
   Criticism should be organized of typical bourgeois representatives who have wormed their way into the Party and typical reactionary bourgeois academic "authorities," and this should include criticism of various kinds of reactionary views in philosophy, history, political economy and education, in works and theories of literature and art, in theories of natural science, and in other fields.
   Criticism of anyone by name in the press should be decided after discussion by the Party committee at the same level, and in some cases submitted to the Party committee at a higher level for approval.

12

Policy Towards Scientists, Technicians and Ordinary Members Of Working Staffs

   As regards scientists, technicians and ordinary members of working staffs, as long as they are patriotic, work energetically, are not against the Party and socialism, and maintain no illicit relations with any foreign country, we should in the present movement continue to apply the policy of "unity, criticism, unity." Special care should be taken of those scientists and scientific and technical personnel who have made contributions. Efforts should be made to help them gradually transform their world outlook and their style of work.
  

  

13

The Question  of Arrangements For Integration With the Socialist Education Movement in City And Countryside

   The cultural and educational units and leading organs of the Party and government in the large and medium cities are the points of concentration of the present proletarian cultural revolution.
   The great cultural revolution has enriched the socialist education movement in both city and countryside and raised it to a higher level. Efforts should be made to conduct these two movements in close combination. Arrangements to this effect may be made by various regions and departments in the light of the specific conditions.
   The socialist education movement now going on in the countryside and in enterprises in the cities should not be upset where the original arrangements are appropriate and the movement is going well, but should continue in accordance with the original arrangements. However, the questions that are arising in the present great proletarian cultural revolution should be put to the masses for discussion at a proper time, so as to further foster vigorously proletarian ideology and eradicate bourgeois ideology.
   In some places, the great proletarian cultural revolution is being used as the focus in order to add momentum to the socialist education movement and clean things up in the fields of politics, ideology, organization and economy. This may be done where the local Party committee thinks it appropriate.


14

Take Firm Hold of the Revolution And Stimulate Production

   The aim of the great proletarian cultural revolution is to revolutionize people's ideology and as a consequence to achieve greater, faster, better and more economical results in all fields of work. If the masses are fully aroused and proper arrangements are made, it is possible to carry on both the cultural revolution and production without one hampering the other, while guaranteeing high quality in all our work.
   The great proletarian cultural revolution is a powerful motive force for the development of the social productive forces in our country. Any idea of counterposing the great cultural revolution against the development of production is incorrect

15

The Armed Forces

   In the armed forces, the cultural revolution and the socialist education movement should be carried out in accordance with the instructions of the Military Commission of the Central Committee and the General Political Department of the People's Liberation Army.

16

Mao Tse-tung's Thought Is the Guide for Action in the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution

   In the great proletarian cultural revolution, it is imperative to hold aloft the great red banner of Mao Tse-tung's thought and put proletarian politics in command. The movement for the creative study and application of Chairman Mao Tse-tung's works should be carried forward among the masses of the workers, peasants and soldiers, the cadres and the intellectuals, and Mao Tse-tung's thought should be taken as the guide for action in the cultural revolution.
   In this complex great cultural revolution, Party committees at all levels must study and apply Chairman Mao's works all the more conscientiously and in a creative way. In particular, they must study over and over again Chairman Mao's writings on the cultural revolution and on the Party's methods of leadership, such as On New Democracy, Talks at the Yenan Forum on Literature and Art, On the Correct Handling of Contradictions Among the People, Speech at the Chinese Communist Party's National Conference on Propaganda Work, Some Questions Concerning Methods of Leadership and Methods of Work of Party Committees.
   Party committees at all levels must abide by the directions given by Chairman Mao over the years, namely that they should thoroughly apply the mass line of "from the masses and to the masses" and that they should be pupils before they become teachers. They should try to avoid being one-sided or narrow. They should foster materialist dialectics and oppose metaphysics and scholasticism.
   The great proletarian cultural revolution is bound to achieve brilliant victory under the leadership of the Central Committee of the Party headed by Comrade Mao Tse-tung.
  
  
  

 
 
顶端 Posted: 2009-01-29 05:10 | [楼 主]
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Another slightly different version of English translation of this important document:

-------------------------

  DECISION CONCERNING THE GREAT PROLETARIAN CULTURAL REVOLUTION

  ( Adopted on 8 August 1966, by the CC of the CCP) (official  English version)

1.A NEW STAGE IN THE SOCIALIST REVOLUTION

    The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution now unfolding is a great
revolution that touches people to their very souls and constitutes
a new stage in the development of the socialist revolution in our
country, a stage which is both broader and deeper.

    At the Tenth Plenary Session of the Eighth Central Committee of
the Party, Comrade Mao Tse-tung said: to overthrow a political power,
it is always necessary first of all to create public opinion, to do
work in the ideological sphere. This is true for the revolutionary
class as well as for the counter-revolutionary class. This thesis
of Comrade Mao Tse-tung's has been proved entirely correct in
practice.

    Although the bourgeoisie has been overthrown, it is still trying
to use the old ideas, culture, customs and habits of the exploiting
classes to corrupt the masses, capture their minds and endeavour to
stage a comeback. The proletariat must do the exact opposite: it must
meet head-on every challenge of the bourgeoisie in the ideological
field and use the new ideas, culture, customs and habits of the
proletariat to change the mental outlook of the whole of society. At
present, our objective is to struggle against and overthrow those
persons in authority who are taking the capitalist road, to criticize
and repudiate the reactionary bourgeois academic 'authorities' and
the ideology of the bourgeoisie and all other exploiting classes and
to transform education, literature and art and all other parts of the
superstructure not in correspondence with the socialist economic base,
so as to facilitate the consolidation and development of the
socialist system.

2. THE MAIN CURRENT AND THE TWISTS AND TURNS

  The masses of the workers, peasants, soldiers, revolutionary
intellectuals, and revolutionary cadres form the main force in this
Great Cultural Revolution. Large numbers of revolutionary young
people, previously unknown, have become courageous and daring
pathbreakers. They are vigorous in action and intelligent. Through
the media of big-character posters and great debates, they argue
things out, expose and criticize thoroughly, and launch resolute
attacks on the open and hidden representatives of the bourgeoisie.
In such a great revolutionary movement, it is hardly avoidable that
they should show shortcomings of one kind or another; however, their
general revolutionary orientation has been correct from the beginning.
This is the main current in the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution.
It is the general direction along which this revolution continues to
advance.

    Since the Cultural Revolution is a revolution, it inevitably meets
with resistance. This resistance comes chiefly from those in authority
who have wormed their way into the Party and are taking the capitalist
road. It also comes from the force of habits from the old society. At
present, this resistance is still fairly strong and stubborn. But
after all, the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution is an
irresistible general trend. There is abundant evidence that such
resistance will be quickly broken down once the masses become fully
aroused.

    Because the resistance is fairly strong, there will be reversals
and even repeated reversals in this struggle. There is no harm in
this. It tempers the proletariat and other working people, and
especially the younger generation, teaches them lessons and gives them
experience, and helps them to understand that the revolutionary road
zigzags and does not run smoothly.

3. PUT DARING ABOVE EVERYTHING ELSE AND BOLDLY AROUSE THE MASSES

    The outcome of this Great Cultural Revolution will be determined
by whether or not the Party leadership dares boldly to arouse the
masses.

    Currently, there are four different situations with regard to the
leadership being given to the movement of Cultural Revolution by Party
organizations at various levels:

    (1) There is the situation in which the persons in charge of Party
organizations stand in the van of the movement and dare to arouse the
masses boldly. They put daring above everything else, they are
dauntless communist fighters and good pupils of Chairman Mao. They
advocate the big-character posters and great debates. They encourage
the masses to expose every kind of ghost and monster and also to
criticize the shortcomings and errors in the work of the persons in
charge. This correct kind of leadership is the result of putting
proletarian politics in the forefront and Mao Tse-tung's thought in
the lead.

    (2) In many units, the persons in charge have a very poor
understanding of the task of leadership in this great struggle, their
leadership is far from being conscientious and effective, and they
accordingly find themselves incompetent and in a weak position. They
put fear above everything else, stick to outmoded ways and
regulations, and are unwilling to break away from conventional
practices and move ahead. They have been taken unaware by the new
order of things, the revolutionary order of the masses, with the
result that their leadership lags behind the situation, lags behind
the masses.

    (3) In some units, the persons in charge, who made mistakes of
one kind or another in the past, are even more prone to put fear
above everything else, being afraid that the masses will catch them
out. Actually, if they make serious self-criticism and accept the
criticism of the masses, the Party and the masses will make allowances
for their mistakes. But if the persons in charge don't, they will
continue to make mistakes and become obstacles to the mass movement.

   (4) Some units are controlled by those who have wormed their way
into the Party and are taking the capitalist road. Such persons in
authority are extremely afraid of being exposed by the masses and
therefore seek every possible pretext to suppress the mass movement.
They resort to such tactics as shifting the targets for attack and
turning black into white in an attempt to lead the movement astray.
When they find themselves very isolated and no longer able to carry
on as before, they resort still more to intrigues, stabbing people
in the back, spreading rumours, and blurring the distinction between
revolution and counter-revolution as much as they can, all for the
purpose of attacking the revolutionaries.

    What the Central Committee of the Party demands of the Party
committees at all levels is that they persevere in giving correct
leadership, put daring above everything else, boldly arouse the
masses, change the state of weakness and incompetence where it exists,
encourage those comrades who have made mistakes but are willing to
correct them to cast off their mental burdens and join in the
struggle, and dismiss from their leading posts all those in authority
who are taking the capitalist road and so make possible to recapture
of the leadership for the proletarian revolution.

4. LET THE MASSES EDUCATE THEMSELVES IN THE MOVEMENT

    In the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, the only method is
for the masses to liberate themselves, and any method of doing things
in their stead must not be used.

    Trust the masses, rely on them and respect their initiative. Cast
out fear. Don't be afraid of disturbances. Chairman Mao has often told
us that revolution cannot be so very refined, so gentle, so temperate,
kind, courteous, restrained and magnanimous. Let the masses educate
themselves in this great revolutionary movement and learn to
distinguish between right and wrong and between correct and incorrect
ways of doing things.

    Make the fullest use of big-character posters and great debates to
argue matters out, so that the masses can clarify the correct views,
criticize the wrong views and expose all the ghosts and monsters. In
this way the masses will be able to raise their political
consciousness in the course of the struggle, enhance their abilities
and talents, distinguish right from wrong and draw a clear line
between ourselves and the enemy.

5. FIRMLY APPLY THE CLASS LINE OF THE PARTY

    Who are our enemies? Who are our friends? This is a question of
the first importance for the revolution and it is likewise a question
of the first importance for the Great Cultural Revolution.

    Party leadership should be good at discovering the left and
developing and strengthening the ranks of the left; it should firmly
rely on the revolutionary left. During the movement this is the only
way to isolate the most reactionary rightists thoroughly, win over the
middle and unite with the great majority so that by the end of the
movement we shall achieve the unity of more than 95 per cent of the
cadres and more than 95 per cent of the masses.

    Concentrate all forces to strike at the handful of ultra-
reactionary bourgeois rightists and counter-revolutionary
revisionists, and expose and criticize to the full their crimes
against the Party, against socialism and against Mao Tse-tung's
thought sos as to isolate them to the maximum.

    The main target of the present movement is those within the Party
who are in authority and are taking the capitalist road.

    The strictest care should be taken to distinguish between the
anti-Party, anti-socialist rightists and those who support the Party
and socialism but have said or done something wrong or have written
some bad articles or other works.

    The strictest care should be taken to distinguish between the
reactionary bourgeois scholar despots and 'authorities' on the one
hand and people who have the ordinary bourgeois academic ideas on the
other.

6. CORRECTLY HANDLE CONTRADICTIONS AMONG THE PEOPLE

    A strict distinction must be made between the two different types
of contradictions: those among the people and those between ourselves
and the enemy. Contradictions among the people must not be made into
contradictions between ourselves and the enemy; nor must
contradictions between ourselves and the enemy be regarded as
contradictions among the people.

    It is normal for the masses to hold different views. Contention
between different views is unavoidable, necessary and beneficial. In
the course of normal and full debate, the masses will affirm what is
right, correct what is wrong and gradually reach unanimity.

    The method to be used in debates is to present the facts, reason
things out, and persuade through reasoning. Any method of forcing a
minority holding different views to submit is impermissible. The
minority should be protected, because sometimes the truth is with the
minority. Even if the minority is wrong, they should still be allowed
to argue their case and reserve their views.

    When there is a debate, it should be conducted by reasoning, not
by coercion or force.

    In the course of debate, every revolutionary should be good at
thinking things out for himself and should develop the communist
spirit of daring to think, daring to speak and daring to act. On the
premise that they have the same general orientation, revolutionary
comrades should, for the sake of strengthening unity, avoid endless
debate over side issues.

7. BE ON GUARD AGAINST THOSE WHO BRAND THE REVOLUTIONARY MASSES
   AS 'COUNTER-REVOLUTIONARIES'

    In certain schools, units, and work teams of the Cultural
Revolution, some of the persons in charge have organized counter-
attacks against the masses who put up big-character posters
criticizing them. These people have even advanced such slogans as:
opposition to the leaders of a unit or a work team means opposition
to the Central Committee of the Party, means opposition to the Party
and socialism, means counter-revolution. In this way it is inevitable
that their blows will fall on some really revolutionary activists.

This is an error on matters of orientation, an error of line, and is
absolutely impermissible.

    A number of persons who suffer from serious ideological errors,
and particularly some of the anti-Party and anti-socialist rightists,
are taking advantage of certain shortcomings and mistakes in the mass
movement to spread rumours and gossip, and engage in agitation,
deliberately branding some of the masses as 'counter-revolutionaries'.
It is necessary to beware of such 'pickpockets' and expose their
tricks in good time.

    In the course of the movement, with the exception of cases of
active counter-revolutionaries where there is clear evidence of crimes
such as murder, arson, poisoning, sabotage or theft of state secrets,
which should be handled in accordance with the law, no measures should
be taken against students at universities, colleges, middle schools
and primary schools because of problems that arise in the movement.

To prevent the struggle from being diverted from its main target, it
is not allowed, under whatever pretext, to incite the masses or the
students to struggle against each other. Even proven rightists should
be dealt with on the merits of each case at a later stage of th%
movement.

8. THE QUESTION OF CADRES

    The cadres fall roughly into the following four categories:
      (1) good;
      (2) comparatively good;
      (3) those who have made serious mistakes but have not become
          anti-Party, anti-socialist rightists;
      (4) the small number of anti-Party, anti-socialist rightists.

    In ordinary situations, the first two categories ( good and
comparatively good ) are the great majority.

    The anti-Party, anti-socialist rightists must be fully exposed,
refuted, overthrown and completely discredited and their influence
eliminated. At the same time, they should be given a chance to turn
over a new leaf.

9. CULTURAL REVOLUTIONARY GROUPS, COMMITTEES AND CONGRESSES

    Many new things have begun to emerge in the Great Proletarian
Cultural Revolution. The Cultural Revolutionary groups,committees and
other organizational forms created by the masses in many schools and
units are something new and of great historic importance.

    These Cultural Revolutionary groups, committees and congresses
are excellent new forms of organization whereby the masses educate
themselves under the leadership of the Communist Party. They are an
excellent bridge to keep our Party in close contact with the masses.
They are organs of power of the proletarian Cultural Revolution.

    The struggle of the proletariat against the old ideas, culture,
customs and habits left over by all the exploiting classes over
thousands of years will necessarily take a very, very long time.
Therefore, the Cultural Revolutionary groups, committees and
congresses should not be temporary organizations but permanent,
standing mass organizations. They are suitable not only for colleges,
schools and government and other organizations, but generally also
for factories, mines, other enterprises, urban districts and villages.

    It is necessary to institute a system of general elections, like
that of the Paris Commune, for electing members to the Cultural
Revolutionary groups and committees and delegates to the Cultural
Revolutionary congresses. The lists of candidates should be put
forward by the revolutionary masses after full discussion, and the
elections should be held after the masses have discussed the lists
over and over again.

    The masses are entitled at any time to criticize members of the
Cultural Revolutionary groups and committees and delegates elected
to the Cultural Revolutionary congresses. If these members or
delegates prove incompetent, they can be replaced through election
or recalled by the masses after discussion.

    The Cultural Revolutionary groups, committees and congresses in
colleges and schools should consist mainly of representatives of the
revolutionary students. At the same time, they should have a certain
number of representatives of the revolutionary teaching and
administrative staff and workers.

10. EDUCATIONAL REFORM

    In the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution a most important
task is to transform the old educational system and the old principles
and methods of teaching.

    In this Great Cultural Revolution, the phenomenon of our schools
being dominated by bourgeois intellectuals must be completely changed.

    In every kind of school we must apply thoroughly the policy
advanced by Comrade Mao Tse-tung of education serving proletarian
politics and education being combined with productive labour, so as to
enable those receiving an education to develop morally, intellectually
and physically and to become labourers with socialist consciousness
and culture.

    The period of schooling should be shortened. Courses should be
fewer and better. The teaching material should be thoroughly
transformed, in some cases beginning with simplifying complicated
material. While their main task is to study, students should also
learn other things. That is to say, in addition to their studies they
should also learn industrial work, farming and military affairs, and
take part in the struggles of the Cultural Revolution to criticize
the bourgeoisie as these struggles occur.

11. THE QUESTION OF CRITICIZING BY NAME IN THE PRESS

    In the course of the mass movement of the Cultural Revolution,
the criticism of bourgeois and feudal ideology should be well
combined with the dissemination of the proletarian world outlook and
of Marxism-Leninism, Mao Tse-tung's thought.

    Criticism should be organized of typical bourgeois representatives
who have wormed their way into the Party and typical reactionary
bourgeois academic 'authorities', and this should include criticism
of various kinds of reactionary views in philosophy, history,
political economy and education, in works and theories of literature
and art, in theories of natural science, and in other fields.

    Criticism of anyone by name in the press should be decided after
discussion by the Party committee at the same level, and in some cases
submitted to the Party committee at a higher level for approval.

12. POLICY TOWARDS SCIENTISTS, TECHNICIANS AND ORDINARY MEMBERS
    OF WORKING STAFFS

    As regards scientists, technicians and ordinary members of
working staffs, as long as they are patriotic, work energetically,
are not against the Party and socialism, and maintain no illicit
relations with any foreign country, we should in the present
movement continue to apply the policy of 'unity, criticism, unity'.
Special care should be taken of those scientists and scientific and
technical personnel who have made contributions. Efforts should be
made to help them gradually transform their world outlook and their
style of work.

13. THE QUESTION OF ARRANGEMENTS FOR INTEGRATION WITH THE SOCIALIST
    EDUCATION MOVEMENT IN CITY AND COUNTRYSIDE

    The cultural and educational units and leading organs of the
Party and government in the large and medium cities are the points of
concentration of the present proletarian Cultural Revolution.

    The Great Cultural Revolution has enriched the socialist education
movement in both city and countryside and raised it to a higher level.
Efforts should be made to conduct these two movements in close
combination. Arrangements to this effect may be made by various
regions and departments in the light of the specific conditions.

    The socialist education movement now going on in the countryside
and in enterprises in the cities should not be upset where the original
arrangements are appropriate and the movement is going well, but
should continue in accordance with the original arrangements. However,
the questions that are arising in the present Great Proletarian
Cultural Revolution should be put to the masses for discussion at the
proper time, so as to further foster vigorously proletarian ideology
and eradicate bourgeois ideology.

    In some places, the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution is
being used as the focus in order to add momentum to the socialist
education movement and clean things up in the fields of politics,
ideology, organization and economy. This may be done where the local
Party committee thinks it appropriate.

14. TAKE FIRM HOLD OF THE REVOLUTION AND STIMULATE PRODUCTION

    The aim of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution is to
revolutionize people's ideology and as a consequence to achieve
greater, faster, better and more economical results in all fields of
work.If the masses are fully aroused and proper arrangements are
made, it is possible to carry on both the Cultural Revolution and
production without one hampering the other, while guaranteeing high
quality in all our work.

    The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution is a powerful motive
force for the development of the social productive forces in our
country. Any idea of counterposing the Great Cultural Revolution to
the development of production is incorrect.

15. THE ARMED FORCES

    In the armed forces, the cultural revolution and the socialist
education movement should be carried out in accordance with the
instructions of the Military Commission of the Central Committee of
the Party and the General Political Department of the People's
Liberation Army.

16. MAO TSE-TUNG'S THOUGHT IS THE GUIDE TO ACTION IN THE GREAT
    PROLETARIAN CULTURAL REVOLUTION

    In the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, it is imperative to
hold aloft the great red banner of Mao Tse-tung's thought and put
proletarian politics in command. The movement for the creative study
and application of Chairman Mao Tse-tung's works should be carried
forward among the masses of the workers, peasants and soldiers, the
cadres and the intellectuals, and Mao Tse-tung's thought should be
taken as the guide to action in the Cultural Revolution.

   In this complex Great Cultural Revolution, Party committees at all
levels must study and apply Chairman Mao's works all the more
conscientiously and in a creative way. In particular, they must study
over and over again Chairman Mao's writings on the Cultural Revolution
and on the Party's methods of leadership, such as ON NEW DEMOCRACY,
TALKS AT THE YENAN FORUM ON LITERATURE AND ART, ON THE CORRECT
HANDLING OF CONTRADICTIONS AMONG THE PEOPLE, SPEECH AT THE CHINESE
COMMUNIST PARTY'S NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PROPAGANDA WORK, SOME
QUESTIONS CONCERNING METHODS OF LEADERSHIP and METHODS OF WORK OF
PARTY COMMITTEES.

    Party committees at all levels must abide by the directions given
by Chairman Mao over the years, namely that they should thoroughly
apply the mass line of 'from the masses, to the masses' and that they
should be pupils before they become teachers.They should try to avoid
being one-sided or narrow. They should foster materialist dialectics
and oppose metaphysics and scholasticism.

    The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution is bound to achieve
brilliant victory under the leadership of the Central Committee of
the Party headed by Comrade Mao Tse-tung.



From
R. Rojas, "La Guardia Roja Conquista China", 1968, pp. 430-440
  
  
  

 
 
顶端 Posted: 2009-03-02 12:41 | 1 楼
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中国共产党中央委员会关于无产阶级文化大革命的决定

( 1966年8月8日 )

一、社会主义革命的新阶段

当前开展的无产阶级文化大革命,是一场触及人们灵魂的大革命,是我国社会主义革命发展的一个更深入、更广阔的新阶段。毛泽东同志在党的八届十中全会上说过,凡是要推翻一个政权,总要先造成舆论,总要先作意识形态方面的工作。革命的阶级是这样,反革命的阶级也是这样。实践证明,毛泽东同志的这个论断是完全正确的。资产阶级虽然已被推翻,但是,他们企图用剥削阶级的旧思想,旧文化,旧风俗,旧习惯,来腐蚀群众,征服人心,力求达到他们复辟的目的。无产阶级恰恰相反,必须迎头痛击资产阶级在意识形态领域里的一切挑战,用无产阶级自己的新思想,新文化,新风俗,新习惯,来改变整个社会的精神面貌。在当前,我们的目的是斗跨走资本主义道路的当权派,批判资产阶级的反动学术“权威”,批判资产阶级和一切剥削阶级的意识形态,改革教育,改革文艺,改革一切不适应社会主义经济基础的上层建筑,以利于巩固和发展社会主义制度。

二、主流和曲折

广大的工农兵、革命的知识分子和革命的干部,是这场文化大革命的主力军。一大批本来不出名的革命青少年成了勇敢的闯将。他们有魄力、有智慧。他们用大字报、大辩论的形式,大鸣大放,大揭露,大批判,坚决地向那些公开的、隐蔽的资产阶级代表人物进行了进攻。在这样大的革命运动中,他们难免有这样那样的缺点,但是,他们的革命大方向始终是正确的。这是无产阶级文化大革命的主流。无产阶级文化大革命正在沿着这个大方向继续前进。

文化革命既然是革命,就不可避免地会有阻力。这种阻力,主要来自那些混进党内的走资本主义道路的当权派,同时也来自旧的社会习惯势力。这种阻力目前还是相当大的,顽强的。但是,无产阶级文化大革命毕竟是大势所趋,不可阻挡。大量事实说明,只要群众充分发动起来了,这种阻力就会迅速被冲垮。

由于阻力比较大,斗争会有反复,甚至可能有多次反复。这种反复,没有什么害处。它将使无产阶级和其它劳动群众,特别是年轻一代,得到锻炼,取得经验教训,懂得革命的道路是曲折的,不平坦的。

三、“敢”字当头,放手发动群众

党的领导敢不敢放手发动群众,将决定这场文化大革命的命运。目前党的各级组织,对文化革命运动的领导,存在着四种情况。

(一)能够站在运动的最前面,敢于放手发动群众。他们是“敢”字当头、无所畏惧的共产主义战士,是毛主席的好学生。他们提倡大字报、大辩论,鼓励群众揭露一切牛鬼蛇神,同时也鼓励群众批评自己工作中的缺点和错误。这种正确领导就是由于突出无产阶级政治,由于毛泽东思想领先。 

(二)有许多单位的负责人,对于这场伟大的斗争的领导,还很不理解,很不认真,很不得力,因而处于软弱无能的地位。他们是“怕”字当头,墨守旧的章法,不愿意打破常规,不求进取。对于群众的革命新秩序,他们感到突然,以致领导落后于形势,落后于群众。

(三)有些单位的负责人,平时有这样那样的错误,他们更是“怕”字当头,怕群众起来抓住他们的辫子。实际上,他们只要认真进行自我批评,接受群众批评,是会被党和群众谅解的。不这样做,就会继续犯错误,以致成为群众运动的绊脚石。

(四)有些单位是被一些混进党内的走资本主义道路的当权派把持着。这些当权派极端害怕群众揭露他们,因而找各种借口压制群众运动。他们采用转移目标、颠倒黑白的手段,企图把运动引向斜路。当他们感到非常孤立,真混不下去的时候,还进一步耍阴谋,放暗箭,造谣言,极力混淆革命和反革命的界限,打击革命派。

党中央对各级党委的要求,就是要坚持正确的领导,“敢”字当头,放手发动群众,改变那种处于软弱无能的状态,鼓励那些有错误而愿意改正的同志放下包袱,参加战斗,撤换那些走资本主义道路的当权派,把那里的领导权夺回到无产阶级革命派手中。

四、让群众在运动中自己教育自己

无产阶级文化大革命,只能是群众自己解放自己,不能采用任何包办代替的办法。

要信任群众,依靠群众,尊重群众的首创精神。要去掉“怕”字。不要怕出乱子。毛主席经常告诉我们,革命不能那样雅致,那样文质彬彬,那温良恭俭让。要让群众在这个大革命运动中,自己教育自己,去识别那些是对的,那些是错的,那些作法是正确的,那些作法是不正确的。

要充分运用大字报、大辩论这些形式,进行大鸣大放,以便群众阐明正确的观点,批判错误的意见,揭露一切牛鬼蛇神。这样,才能使广大群众在斗争中提高觉悟,增长才干,辨别是非,分清敌我。

五、坚决执行党的阶级路线

谁是我们的敌人?谁是我们的朋友?这个问题是革命的首要问题。当领导的要善于发现左派,发展和壮大左派队伍,坚决依靠革命的左派。这样,才能够在运动中,彻底孤立最反动的右派,争取中间派,团结大多数,经过运动,最后达到团结百分之九十五以上的干部,团结百分之九十五以上的群众。集中力量打击一小撮极端反动的资产阶级右派分子、反革命修正主义分子,充分地揭露和批判他们的反党反社会主义反毛泽东思想的罪行,把他们最大限度地孤立起来。

这次运动的重点,是整党内那些走资本主义道路的当权派。

注意把反党反社会主义的右派分子,同拥护党和社会主义,但也说过一些错话,作过一些错事或写过一些不好文章不好作品的人,严格区别开来。

注意把资产阶级的反动学阀、反动“权威”,同具有一般的资产阶级学术思想的人,严格区别开来。

六、正确处理人民内部矛盾

必须严格分别两类不同性质的矛盾:是人民内部矛盾,还是敌我矛盾?不要把人民内部矛盾搞成敌我矛盾,也不要把敌我矛盾搞成人民内部矛盾。

人民群众中有不同意见,这是正常现象。几种不同意见的争论,是不可避免的,是必要的,是有益的。群众会在正常的充分的辩论中,肯定正确,改正错误,逐步取得一致。

在辩论中,必须采取摆事实、讲道理、以理服人的方法。对于持有不同意见的少数人,也不准采取任何压服的办法。要保护少数,因为有时真理在少数人手里。即使少数人的意见是错误的,也允许他们申辩,允许他们保留自己的意见。

在进行辩论的时候,要用文斗,不用武斗。

在辩论中,每个革命者都要善于独立思考,发扬敢想、敢说、敢做的共产主义风格。革命的同志,在大方向一致的前提下,不要在枝节问题上争论不休,以便加强团结。

七、警惕有人把革命群众打成“反革命”

有些学校、有些单位、有些工作组的负责人,对给他们贴大字报的群众,组织反击,甚至提出所谓反对本单位或工作组领导人就是反对党中央,就是反党反社会主义,就是反革命等类口号。他们这样做,必然要打击到一些真正革命的积极分子。这是方向的错误,路线的错误,决不允许这样做。

有些有严重错误思想的人们,甚至有些反党反社会主义的右派分子,利用群众运动中的某些缺点和错误,散布流言蜚语,进行煽动,故意把一些群众打成“反革命”。要谨防扒手,及时揭穿他们耍弄的这套把戏。

在运动中,除了确有证据的杀人、放火、放毒、破坏、盗窃国家机密等现行反革命分子,应当依法处理外,大学、专科学校、中学和小学学生中的问题,一律不整。为了防止转移斗争的主要目标,不许用任何借口,去挑动群众斗争群众,挑动学生斗争学生,即使是真正的右派分子,也要放到运动的后期酌情处理。 

八、干部问题

干部大致可分为以下四种:

(一)好的。

(二)比较好的。

(三)有严重错误,但还不是反党反社会主义的右派分子。

(四)少量的反党反社会主义的右派分子。

在一般情况下,前两种人(好的,比较好的)是大多数。对反党反社会主义的右派分子,要充分揭露,要斗倒,斗垮,斗臭,肃清他们的影响,同时给以出路,让他们重新做人。

九、文化革命小组、文化革命委员会、文化革命代表大会

无产阶级文化大革命运动中,开始涌现了许多新事物。在许多学校、许多单位,群众所创造的文化革命小组、文化革命委员会等组织形式,就是一种有伟大历史意义的新事物。

文化革命小组、文化革命委员会、文化革命代表大会是群众在共产党领导下自己教育自己的最好的新组织形式。它是我们党同群众密切联系的最好的桥梁。它是无产阶级文化大革命的权力机构。

无产阶级同过去几千年来一切剥削阶级遗留下来的旧思想、旧文化、旧风俗、旧习惯的斗争需要经历很长很长的时期。因此,文化革命小组、文化革命委员会、文化革命代表大会不应当是临时性的组织,而应当是长期的常设的群众组织。它不但适用于学校、机关,也基本上适用于工矿企业、街道、农村。

文化革命小组、文化革命委员会和文化革命代表大会的代表的产生,要象巴黎公社那样,必须实行全面的选举制。候选名单,要由革命群众充分酝酿提出来,在经过群众反复讨论后进行选举。

当选的文化革命小组、文化革命委员会和文化革命代表大会的代表,可以由群众随时提出批评,如果不称职,经过群众讨论,可以改选、撤换。

在学校中,文化革命小组、文化革命委员会、文化革命代表大会,应该以革命学生为主体,同时,要有一定数量的革命教师职工的代表参加。

十、教学改革

改革旧的教育制度,改革旧的教育方针和方法,是这场无产阶级文化大革命的一个极其重要的任务。

在这场文化大革命中,必须彻底改变资产阶级知识分子统治我们学校的现象。

在各类学校中,必须彻底贯彻执行毛泽东同志提出的教育为无产阶级政治服务、教育与生产劳动相结合的方针,使受教育者在德育、智育、体育几方面都得到发展,成为有社会主义觉悟的有文化的劳动者。

学制要缩短。课程设置要精简。教材要彻底改革,有的首先删繁就简。学生以学为主,兼学别样。也就是不但要学文,也要学工、学农、学军,也要随时参加批判资产阶级的文化革命的斗争。

十一、报刊上点名批判的问题

在进行文化革命群众运动的时候,必须把对无产阶级世界观的传播,对马克思列宁主义、毛泽东思想的传播,同对资产阶级和封建阶级的思想批判很好地结合起来。

要组织对那些有代表性的混进党内的资产阶级阶级代表人物和资产阶级的反动学术“权威”,进行批判,包括对哲学、历史学、政治经济学、教育学、文艺作品、文艺理论、自然科学理论等战线上的各种反动观点的批判。

在报刊上点名批判,应当经过同级党委讨论,有的要报上级党委批准。

十二、关于科学家、技术人员和一般工作人员的政策

对于科学家、技术人员和一般工作人员,只要他们是爱国的,是积极工作的,是不反党反社会主义的,是不里通外国的,在这次运动中,都应该继续采取团结、批评、团结的方针。对于有贡献的科学家和科学技术人员,应该加以保护。对他们的世界观和作风,可以帮助他们逐步改造。

十三、同城乡社会主义教育运动相结合的部署问题

大中城市的文化教育单位和党领导机关,是当前无产阶级文化大革命运动的重点。

文革使城乡社会主义教育运动更加丰富、更加提高了。必须把两者结合起来进行。各地区、各部门可以根据具体情况进行部署。

在农村和城市企业进行社会主义教育运动的地方,如果原来的部署是合适的,又做得好,就不要打乱它,继续按照原来的部署进行。但是,当前无产阶级文化大革命运动提出的问题,应当在适当的时机,交给群众讨论,以便进一步大兴无产阶级思想,大灭资产阶级的思想。

有的地方,以无产阶级文化大革命为中心,带动社会主义教育运动,清政治、清思想、清组织,清经济。这样做,如果那里党委认为合适,也是可以的。

十四、抓革命,促生产

无产阶级文化大革命,就是为的要使人的思想革命化,因而使各项工作做得更多、更快、更好、更省。只要充分发动群众,妥善安排,就能够保证文化革命和生产两不误,保证各项工作的高质量。

无产阶级文化大革命是使我国社会生产力发展的一个强大的推动力。把文化大革命同发展生产对立起来,这种看法是不对的。

十五、部队

部队的文化革命运动和社会主义教育运动,按照中央军委和总政治部的指示进行。

十六、毛泽东思想是无产阶级文化大革命的行动指南

在无产阶级文化大革命中,要高举毛泽东思想的伟大红旗,实行无产阶级政治挂帅,要在广大工农兵、广大干部和广大知识分子中,开展活学活用毛主席著作的运动,把毛泽东思想作为文化革命的行动指南。

各级党委,在这样错综复杂的文化大革命中,更必须认真地活学活用毛主席著作。特别是要反复学习毛主席有关文化革命和党的领导方法的著作,例如,《新民主主义论》、《在延安文艺座谈会上的讲话》、《关于正确处理人民内部矛盾的问题》、《在中国共产党全国宣传工作会议上的讲话》、《关于领导方法的若干问题》、《党委会的工作方法》。

各级党委,要遵守毛主席历来的指示,贯彻执行从群众中来、到群众中去的群众路线,先做学生, 后做 先生。要努力避免片面性和局限性。要提倡唯物辩证法,反对形而上学和烦琐哲学。

在以毛泽东同志为首的党中央领导下,无产阶级文化大革命必将取得伟大的胜利。

( 一九六七年八月九日 《人民日报》)
  
  
  

 
 
顶端 Posted: 2009-04-02 16:31 | 2 楼
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